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I Ca. 1 






Supplement to 








Claude T. Reno 


(pa. alpha iota) 
Editcr of The Palm 




1-1 V 

''Biothers, we have a history — short though 
it may be — which must not be suffered to die 
with us. We have records — precious records — 
of golden deeds, of immolated lives — a very 
martyr roll — which must be sacredly kept and 
lovingly guarded. They are legacies which 
our dear brothers, who have gone before us to 
their reward, have left us — more valuable than 
rubies, more useful than gold, to make us ever 
mindful of what Alpha Tau Omega means and 
to teach us to be ever ready to obey duty's call." 
Joseph R. Anderson, 1881, 




During the past five years the writer has frequently been 
requested to supply brief histories of, and special data and infor- 
mation concerning, the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. These have 
been solicited and used for various purposes. The newspapers 
of the various cities wherein our recent biennial meetings were 
held, members assigned to toasts at banquets, members requested 
to deliver addresses on Founder's Day and other fraternity 
functions, local clubs and fraternities aspiring to charters for 
chapters of Alpha Tau Omega, compilers of Greek-letter fraternity 
manuals and handbooks, fathers and guardians of young men 
invited to participate in our privileges, committees appointed by 
Greek-letter fraternities to investigate matters of import and 
interest, writers for the Palm — all these and many more have often 
engaged the writer's time and attention. 

The information usually required is scattered throughout 
thirty volumes of the Palm, the printed proceedings and minutes 
of the Congress, the several registers and catalogues, the general 
and chapter archives and in various miscellaneous volumes, many 
of which are totally inaccessible to the rank and file of the fra- 
ternity. It seemed, upon a consideration of the foregoing facts, 
that a brief, yet accurate, compilation of some of the information 
available to the writer might not be entirely unserviceable and 
might, perhaps, temporarily satisfy the rather insistent demand 
for a complete and comprehensive history of and compendium 
of information concerning Alpha Tau Omega. 

It must be stated that no pretensions to completeness are 
made. The book does not touch every phase of the fraternity's 
many and diverse activities, nor does it adequately or fully describe 
or narrate such of the activities and events as are at all included. 
No single epoch or period of our history is treated in complete 
detail. In its making, few of the original records and documents 
were consulted and no attempt was made to collate and verify 
the many legends and traditions of unwritten history by extended 


correspondence with persons likely to possess the necessary knowl- 
edge. Most of its contents were abstracted from printed books 
at the writer's command; e. g., the Palm, catalogues, Congress 
proceedings and the like. Indeed, upon reflection, it seems 
reasonable that the whole performance will be more remarkable 
for its omissions than for its contents. In that event, it will 
illustrate the very meagre knowledge available even to one who 
possesses and has zealously studied every publication ever issued 
by the fraternity. The work is, therefore, not a history but a 
contribution to history — the veriest outline of the leading and 
essential facts of our life as a fraternity, a mere compilation of 
those facts collected from reliable printed sources. 

In addition to the manifest want of thoroughness there may 
exist inaccuracies in the statement of facts. In spite of constant 
vigilance against errors of commission it is likely, nevertheless, 
that some have been incorporated. They are, of course, less 
pardonable than lack of completeness. However, all errors, 
whether of omission or commission, can and will be corrected 
by the thorough preliminary investigation required to write the 
larger and more complete history that is now so urgently and 
imperatively needed. 

The writer acknowledges his obligations and returns his 
thanks to the following brothers: to Joseph R. Anderson (Alpha), 
the Founder of the Palm, for an illuminating letter of the early 
days of the fraternity; to Herbert L. Blankenburg (Gamma Tau),^ 
Associate Editor of the Palm, for the excellent and thorough 
compilation of the names and records of our prominent alumni, 
which list constitutes Chapter XII of this volume; to George J. 
Schwartz (Beta Mu) and the Ohio Beta Mu chapter for the loan 
of several of the earlier volumes of the Palm; to Harvey L. Reno 
(Alpha Iota) for valued assistance in revising and proof-reading 
"copy, " and, finally, to Max S. Brdman (Alpha Iota), of the High 
'Council, for his wise counsel and unvarying encouragement. 

If this little volume will satisfy for a time the very obvious 
needs of the fraternity and hasten the publication of an authorita- 
tive history, the writer will be well repaid for many months of 
time and labor bestowed upon his self appointed task of love. 

, CivAUDE T. Reno. 

Ai^LENTowN, Pa., August 15, 1911. 



I The Foundation, ...... 7 

II Extension — Community Chapters, .15 

III Extension — South, 17 

IV Extension— North, ...... 23 

V Extension — General, ..... 27 

VI Alumni Associations, . .32 

VII The Fraternity's Government, .... 33 

VIII Phases of Fraternity Activity, . . .37 

IX The Palm, ...... 45 

X Other Publications, ...... 48 

XI Insignia, ....... 53 

XII Prominent Alumni (Compiled by H. h. Blankenburg), 57 

XIII Roll of Chapters, ...... 69 

XIV Fraternity Statistics, . . . . .81 


The Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity was founded at Richmond, 
Va., on Monday, September ii, 1865, by Otis Allan Glazebrook, 
Erskine Mayo Ross and Alfred Marshall. 

The first chapter of the fraternity was established at the 
Virginia Military Institute, at Lexington, Va. 

The Virginia Military Institute was founded in the year 1839, 
by the State of Virginia, which still maintains and controls it. 
Originally projected as a military training school, it now offers 
courses of study equal to those offered by many of the better 
denominational colleges of the country, giving particular emphasis 
to its scientific and military departments. In the latter branch 
it has always excelled most of the schools of the country and truly 
was, as it was frequently called, the "West Point of the South." 
During its long, varied and useful career it has graduated thou- 
sands of worthy men into every sphere and station of life, and 
during the war between the States, it played a most useful and 
important part. 

When the war began the alumni of the Institute were among 
the very first to offer their services to the several States of the 
Confederacy. A very small proportion enlisted in the Union 
Army. The alumni were soon followed by the students then 
attending the Institute. In 1861 the entire student corps com* 
manded by "Stonewall" Jackson, then an instructor at the 
Institute, marched to Camp Lee, at Richmond, where the cadets 
were employed in drilling and training the raw and undisciplined 
volunteers who assembled there for enlistment and organization. 
Meanwhile the Institute was closed, but in 1862 it was opened as 
a training school to supply skilled and educated officers to the 
Confederate armies. During the war the Institute cadets were 
repeatedly called into service and their gallantry at New Market 
has often been the subject of song and story. 


The three Founders, as well as the first members of the 
fraternity, experienced rugged service in the Confederate armies. 
When Virginia seceded, Glazebrook, then a student at Randolph- 
Macon College, in Prince Edward County, Va., applied for and 
secured a cadetship at the Institute and subsequently was sent 
to Camp Lee as a drill master. He engaged in the battles of 
Fair Oaks, McDowell, Franklin, New Market and was present at 
the surrender at Appomattox. Ross had entered the Institute 
in 1 86 1 and served at Camp Lee, Cedar Run, Slaughters Mountain 
and New Market. Marshall entered the Institute during 1862 and 
served at most of the battles mentioned. All achieved distin- 
guished records: Glazebrook was publicly commended in general 
orders and in his commander's report for conspicuous bravery 
at New Market ; Ross, who enlisted in the ranks, was mustered out 
of service as a captain; Marshall was one of the immortal color 
guard at New Market and in command of his company. 

After the close of the war, the three returned to the Institute. 
Ross was graduated in 1865. Glazebrook and Marshall were 
members of the succeeding class. 

It is not now necessary to describe the conditions following 
the greatest fratricidal war of the ages. With both North and 
South exhausted and peace achieved only at the awful price of 
devastated lives and lands men were slow to reconciliation. The 
world now knows what it little realized then: that the welding 
of the newer and stronger bonds of a greater Union would require 
years and decades of uninterrupted peace, that war would be 
followed by unrelenting hatred, that small fry politicians would 
attempt to reconstruct vanquished brothers with the torments of 
revenge instead of the kind ministrations of love, and that only 
another war of common glory could again unite the discordant 

Wise beyond his years, Otis A. Glazebrook was a keen observer 
of men and events, and with these conditions in mind, he planned 
Alpha Tau Omega. He was not ignorant of the aims, purposes 
and methods of the Greek-letter college fraternity system. During 
his short stay at Randolph-Macon he became acquainted with 
Delta Psi, which fraternity maintained a chapter there from 1853 
to i86t, and at Washington College (now called Washington and 


Lee University), located at Lexington, Va., Phi Kappa Pis 
and Beta Theta Pi had maintained chapters until the war sus- 
pended their operations. After the war efforts were made to 
revive the suspended chapters and to establish new chapters at 
desirable institutions. Glazebrook was invited to co-operate in 
the task of establishing several new and defunct chapters, but his 
investigation of the several organizations revealed principles and 
ideals which did not fully measure up to his desires and expecta- 
tions. Glazebrook believed that a fraternity should have a higher 
motive than the forming of ties of friendship for social purposes. 
He believed that a bond of friendship between men of congenial 
tastes was proper, but he thought that the forming of such bonds 
of friendship should not be the sole end sought by a fraternity, 
but rather the means whereby a greater end might be achieved. 
Accordingly, he set about to fashion a new fraternity and Alpha 
Tau Omega is the child of his genius. 

Glazebrook perceived, as did few men then, that a reunited 
nation must, of necessity, be a slow growth. He believed that 
the severed bonds of Union could be united only by mutual 
forbearance, love and charity. He believed, too, that the passing 
generation that had fomented and fought the long war and 
suffered its hardships and losses would be slow to forget its 
calamities and the issues that produced them and slower to forgive 
the hatred that had impelled bayonets into their brothers' bosoms. 
He thought that the younger men of that day and their successors 
attending the colleges of the country and farther removed from 
the stirring times of the war could be more readily awakened to 
the fine, lofty sentiment expressed in 

"No North, no South, no East, no West," 
than any other group of men. He sought, therefore, to bind such 
men together in a common brotherhood, wherein being taught 
to love one another and unselfishly loving one another, they 
might the better understand each other and the other's section 
and State and thus, ultimately, by the force of their examples 
as individuals, influence their fellows of the outer world and 
gradually bind the w^hole people together in the newer and stronger 
ties of true fraternity. Friendship, in this view, was both an end 
and a means. It bound congenial men together in a brotherhood 


teaching the soundest principles of morality and ethics — a worthy 
end. It used the love and regard thus engendered "to bind up 
the nation's wounds and achieve and cherish a just and lasting 
peace" among the late combatants and their descendants. 

Having written a constitution and devised ritualistic and 
secret work, inculcating and symbolizing these objects and ideals, 
Glazebrook called Ross and Marshall into consultation. The 
three were already staunch friends and comrades and they met in 
the rear parlor of the home of Larkin White Glazebrook, the 
Founder's father, at 114 East Clay Street, Richmond, Va., on the 
evening of September 11, 1865. Here Glazebrook's preliminary 
work was ratified and the fraternity formally organized. At the 
opening of the fall term (1865) of the Virginia Military Institute, 
Glazebrook and Marshall returned to resume their courses. Ross 
did not return, having graduated the previous spring. A few 
days after the opening of the term, John G. James, William G. 
Bennett, A. W. Overton, John A. Crichton, George Spiller and 
Frank T. Lee were initiated. These, together with the Founders, 
constituted the first or Alpha chapter. Later, other men were 
added to the roll and by the end of the year (1865) the chapter 
contained fourteen men. 

Some day the interesting records and annals of the Alpha 
chapter must be published. It is now quite enough to say that 
it comprised the ablest, the most promising and the most popular 
men at the Institute. Its meetings were held usually in the rooms 
of the members and consisted largely — as was the practice of the 
Greek societies in those days — of literary exercises and debates. 
Its internal affairs were conducted with rare harmony, and the 
relations of the members among themselves were in full accord 
with the doctrines to which they had professed adherence. 

Meanwhile, Washington College (since called Washington and 
Lee University), situated in the same village of Lexington, Va.> 
had reopened its doors. General Robert B. Lee was its president 
and his exalted name and untarnished prestige were attracting 
large numbers of students from the South. Unlike many other 
fraternities. Alpha Tau Omega was projected as a national society. 
Its first constitution, adopted by the Founders, provided for 
additional chapters to be established by the first cr m.other chapter. 


Indeed, and we shall have occasion to emphasize this thought 
farther on in these pages, only by a multitude of chapters located 
in all parts of the country could the Founders hope to realize the 
object of their association. Accordingly, the second chapter 
(Beta) was installed at Washington College on November i8, 1865. 
The first initiates were John S. Van Mexer, Flavins J. Snyder, 
Frederick O. Berlin and Milton B. Hurt. They were initiated, 
says Berlin, in a room occupied by a cadet of the Institute at an 
old hotel on Main Street. 

For many years the chapters at Lexington met together and 
constituted, in many respects, but one chapter. Both were 
prosperous and successful in securing good men for their ranks. 
Beta met fierce competition, and at times her ranks were thinned; 
but an existence was maintained until 1899, when the charter 
was surrendered and the chapter went out in the general exodus 
of fraternities at the University. In 1906 the chapter was 
revived. Alpha continued until 1881, when anti-fraternity 
regulations compelled it to surrender. It has never been revfved, 
although several other fraternities are now maintaining sub rosa 
chapters at the Institute. It is the policy of the fraternity to 
respect the rules and regulations of the local authorities, and no 
chapter will now be installed at any institution not legally open 
to fraternities. 

Alpha was not permitted to wield undisputed sway at the 
Institute. Kappa Alpha, founded at Washington and Lee, 
established its Beta chapter at the Institute in 1868. Beta 
Theta Pi followed in 1869 and during the same year Sigma Nu was 
organized. The last named was formed as an opposition move- 
ment to Alpha Tau Omega. It had, apparently, no other object 
than to oppose and minimize the influence of Alpha Tau Omega. 
During the two or three years following the foundation, Alpha 
Tau Omega, by force of numbers and character, was able to 
control the Greek life at the Institute. The most prominent 
men, the honor men, the captains and adjutants of the corps were 
Alpha Taus. Of course, such exclusiveness, whether intentional 
or not, bred opposition. The Alpha Taus were called " Blackfeet " 
— because of the color of the badge worn by the members — and 
the unorganized hostile movement called originally "Whitefeet" 


gradually crystallized into a permanent society and finally, under 
the leadership of James F. Hopkins, of Arkansas, became Sigma 
Nu. The rivalry of the two societies continued for many years 
and at the Institute never abated in warmth or vigor. Elsewhere, 
the two are usually rather friendly than otherwise. 

In 1865, when Alpha Tau Omega was founded, the Greek- 
letter college fraternity system had already attained importance 
in the college world. Twenty of the national and general college 
fraternities now existing had been organized. Alpha Tau Omega 
was the twenty-first. Except in so far as their operations had 
been suspended during the war, the twenty societies were well 
organized, soundly established and prosperous and flourishing 
associations. They had founded chapters at the better and 
larger institutions in all parts of the country, had acquired the 
valued prestige of great names upon their rolls of alumni, had 
commenced to acquire chapter houses, were publishing catalogues 
of merit and were about to establish representative fraternity 
journals. Not less than 330 chapters had been established by 
them, many of which were, of course, inactive during and directly 
after the war. Many of their alumni were men of years who had 
attained eminence in their professions, in politics, in the great 
war just ended or in other worthy spheres of action. Fraternity 
houses — rented — had been acquired by chapters at Kenyon and 
Phi Delta Theta, Beta Theta Pi, Zeta Psi and others had published 
more or less elaborate registers of their membership. In fine, 
the system, as we know it, had come into being. It had emerged 
from its shiftless, uncertain youth into matured manhood and 
was preparing to embrace the greater opportunities to be presented 
by the ensuing decades. It follows, that the field was fairly well 
occupied. Indeed, in the years that have passed since 1865, not 
more than ten general, national fraternities have been organized. 
Any fraternity, organized in 1865, was compelled, in order to 
succeed, to show worthy and substantial reasons for its existence, 
and these reasons Glazebrook's heart conceived in the organization 
of Alpha Tau Omega. 

It is a matter of interest to know the condition of the other 
fraternities in 1865. Herewith are stated the name of the fra- 


ternity, the date of its foundation, the place of its foundation and 
the number of chapters established by it up to the end of the 
year 1865: (i) Kappa Alpha, 1825, Union College, 5; (2) Sigma 
Phi, 1827, Union College, 8; (3) Delta Phi, 1827, Union College, 11 ; 
(4) Alpha Delta Phi, 1832, Hamilton College, 16; (5) Psi Upsilon, 
1833, Union College, 14; (6) Delta Upsilon, 1834, Williams College, 
15; (7) Beta Theta Pi, 1839, Miami College, 32; (8) Chi Psi, 1841, 
Union College, 17; (9) Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1844, Yale, 33; 
(10) Zeta Psi, 1846, New York University, 19; (11) Delta Psi, 
1847, Columbia University, 16; (12) Theta Delta Chi, 1847, 
Union College, 19; (13) Phi Gamma Delta, 1848, Jefferson College, 
20; (14) Phi Delta Theta, 1848, Miami College, 19; (15) Phi Kappa 
Sigma, 1850, University of Pennsylvania, 17; (16) Phi Kappa 
Psi, 1852, Jefferson College, 21 ; (17) Chi Phi, 1854, Princeton, 11 ; 
(18) Sigma Chi, 1855, Miami College, 16; (19) Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon, 1856, University of Alabama, 14; (20) Delta Tau Delta, 
i860, Bethany College, 10. 

In addition, other national fraternities, now defunct or 
absorbed by other fraternities, had established a large number 
of chapters. [^jj 

The Founders of the fraternity were born in Virginia, were 
about of one age, served in the Confederate army and attained 
distinction in their several walks of life. There is not sufficient 
space to state more than the salient facts of their lives. 

Otis Allan Glazebrcok was born at Richmond, Va., on October 
13, 1845; entered Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va., at an 
early age; when Virginia seceded, entered the Virginia Military 
Institute and was detailed to Camp Lee, Richmond, as drill 
master and served throughout the war. Was graduated from 
the Institute, at the head of his class, in 1866; commenced the 
study of the law and finding it distasteful, entered the Episcopal 
Seminary at Fairfax, Va. ; ordained into the Episcopal ministry, 
1870; served charges in Virginia, Baltimore, Macon, Ga. ; was 
chaplain of the University of Virginia from 1883 to 1885; in 1885 
went to Elizabeth, N. J., as the rector of St. John's Church, the 
largest church in that State. He is still the rector of St. John's 
and is the most noted divine in New Jersey. 


Erskine Mayo Ross was born at Belpre, Culpepper County, 
Va., on June 30, 1845 ; son of William Buckner Ross and Elizabeth 
Mayo Thorn, distinguished Virginia family names; entered 
Virginia Military Institute and served as drill master at Camp Lee 
and in various battles of the war ; after war, returned to Institute 
and graduated in 1865; in 1868 went to Lcs Angeles, Cal., and 
entered law offices of his uncle, Cameron Erskine Thorn ; admitted 
to bar, 1869, and formed partnership with uncle; 1879, elected 
associate judge of Supreme Court of California; 1882, re-elected 
for twelve-year term; 1886, resigned and resumed practice of the 
law as partner of Stephen M. White, afterward U. S. Senator; 
December 16, 1886, appointed judge of the United States District 
Court by President Cleveland; 1895, appointed judge of the 
United States Circuit Court by President Cleveland. Regarded 
by Western lawyers as their ablest jurist and known throughout 
the country for the wealth of learning with which his opinions 
and decisions are adorned. 

Alfred Marshall was born at Richmond, Va., on December 
25, 1845; son of William and Gertrude Virginia Marshall; father 
was British subject and was British vice-consul; mother was 
granddaughter of Bishop Moore, second P. E. bishop of Virginia. 
In 1862 entered Virginia Military Institute; was first captain of 
cadets, in command at New Market; 1866, graduated and elected 
assistant professor of Mathematics at Institute; 1869, resigned and 
became surveyor for Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad; 1870, 
appointed chief engineer for Mobile & Montgomery Railroad and 
built road from Tensas to Mobile; seized with yellow fever, then 
prevalent in the South, and died September 22, 1870. In the 
spring of 1871 his remains were taken to Richmond, where he 
lies buried at Hollywood Cemetery. Was regarded as one of the 
new South's most promising young men and noted as its most 
expert railroad engineer. 




The third chapter was established at Weston, W. Va., on 
April I, 1866, by William G. Bennett (Alpha). It was not 
attached to nor connected with an institution of learning, and its 
members, at the times of their initiation, were not students at 
any college or university. These circumstances distinguished 
it from the two chapters at Lexington and gave it and like chap- 
ters, subsequently established, the designation, "community 
chapters." Of the first eight chapters, six were of this type, and 
during the life of the fraternity nine were established, one of which 
eventually became a regular college chapter. Tennessee Iota, 
established at Murfreesboro, Tenn., was transferred to Union 

The communit / chapter idea is not generally regarded as 
a regular feature of a college fraternity. Few of the existing 
general college fraternities organized similar bodies and they would 
not be recognized as orthodox features of a properly organized 
Greek-letter college fraternity in this age. But the reasons for 
their being, the circumstances of their creation, and the honorable 
and useful careers of each of our community chapters amply 
justified the departure from the generally accepted canons of 
Greek-letter fraternity life. 

The community chapters were organized by virtue of a pro- 
vision in the first constitution. The authority to organize was 
granted in most instances by Virginia Alpha, then the executive 
chapter, although three were actually instituted after the meeting 
of the first Congress. As already stated, many of the early 
initiates of Alpha and Beta had seen service in the Confederate 
army. They had entered their respective schools before the 
war, and at the opening of hostilities enlisted in the army. After 
the close of the war, they returned to their interrupted studies. 


There were others, however, upon whom the fortunes of war had 
fallen with heavier hand and they never resumed their college 
courses. The men who did return were bound by the tenderest 
ties to their less fortunate comrades at home. Together they 
had entered college and pursued their studies; together they 
had enlisted in the cause of the South; side by side they had 
fought a brave fight. It was, therefore, quite natural that the 
early initiates should wish to share their privileges with men, 
who, had they returned to college, would have been elected to 
membership. These considerations induced the formation of the 
first community chapters. Afterward, similar chapters were 
established to secure the adherence of men of influence and pres- 
tige and to secure general good standing as a fraternity among 
a class of men who could by precept and example further the 
principles of the fraternity. 

Precedents for their action were not wanting. Phi Beta 
Kappa, the first Greek-letter society, instituted numerous chap- 
ters in the various cities and counties of Virginia. Beta Theta 
Pi established a community chapter at Cincinnati and authorized 
the formation of others. Other fraternities, before and since, 
have followed a like course. 

The community chapters were founded by members of Alpha 
and Beta, except Georgia Sigma, which was established by a 
member of Kentucky Omicron. They were established in every 
instance in the home cities or towns of the founders. The chapters 
enjoyed all the privileges of the fraternity, sent delegates to Con- 
gress and voted upon all questions. They had, however, no power 
to elect members. Members were elected by one of the collegiate 
chapters and initiated into the fraternity by the community 
chapter nearest the home of the person thus elected. The initiates 
were, therefore, in a sense honorary members of the several 
collegiate chapters. In all, seventy-four members were added to 
the rolls in this manner and, among them, some of the strongest 
and ablest men in the fraternity. 

The community chapters are included in the roll of chapters 
elsewhere printed. 



The fraternity having been successfully established by the 
installation of two prosperous and growing chapters at Lexington, 
its founders looked about for new fields of conquest. The fra- 
ternity was projected as a national organization, differing in this 
respect from many similar societies which at their inception were 
intended for one institution only. The founders of Alpha Tau 
Omega contemplated a national organization, consisting not only 
of a large number of chapters, but also a fraternity with chapters 
in all sections of the United States. Some of the so-called South- 
ern fraternities, of which Alpha Tau Omega is one, were, and 
still are, by tradition if not by law, limited to the South, notably 
Kappa Alpha (Southern) and Pi Kappa Alpha. But Alpha Tau 
Omega desired chapters in the North as well as in the South, and 
in the West equally with the East. Indeed, if the primary objects 
of its being were to be in anywise realized, chapters of strength, 
durability and usefulness must be established at the North. 
Otherwise the founders' sublime hope of reuniting the warring 
sections by binding the young men of talents and character 
together in the bonds of a common brotherhood could never be 
realized. However, as we shall presently see, the fraternity, 
nolens volens, was confined to the South for many years and a 
foothold was secured in the North only after years of planning 
and ceaseless endeavor. 

Even in the South, the growth of the fraternity was slow. 
The unsettled conditions in the South at the close of the war did 
not invite the organization of college fraternities. Before the 
war, the well-established Eastern and Western fraternities had 
planted chapters at most of the better and larger institutions in 
the South. The war suspended their careers; in many cases, it 
ended their careers. After the close of the war, some were revived. 


but even revivals were few and new chapters almcst unknown. 
Indeed, at that time, the South was generally regarded as possess- 
ing few attractions for college fraternity chapters, and the fra- 
ternities with defunct Southern chapters were in no great haste 
to encourage their revival. The newer Southern fraternities, by 
;aggressively seizing the many splendid opportunities thus pre- 
sented, secured an enduring foothold before Phi Delta Theta, 
Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa Bpsilon and others took action to 
reclaim their lost domains. When they awoke to a realization of 
what had occurred and undertook to exert themselves, Alpha 
Tau Omega, Sigma Nu, Kappa Sigma, Kappa Alpha (Southern), 
Pi Kappa Alpha — all organized shortly after the war — and Sigma 
Alpha Bpsilon — organized shortly before the war — were strongly 
entrenched in the South and were casting longing eyes toward 
the fertile fields of the North. In fact, the present eminence and 
prosperity of these fraternities — ^all of Southern origin and some- 
times called "the Southern group " — are due entirely to the almost 
supine negligence of their older and more powerful rivals during 
the first decade succeeding the war. 

Although the Southern fraternities encountered little or no 
opposition from their Northern neighbors, the work of organizing 
chapters in the South was laborious and difficult. The South 
suffered the ravages of war far more than the North and was 
knger in reviving from its effects. Property was destroyed; 
credit had vanished; industry was prostrated; devastation, ruin 
and loss was visible on all sides. Upon the colleges were focused 
all the suffering and woe. College buildings were destroyed; 
their equipments scattered to the four winds; their libraries 
devastated ; their endowments were swept away by the destruction 
of the projects in which their income-producing funds were in- 
vested. They shared the common prostrated condition of the 
country and were destined to remain longer in their sad plight; 
for no institution of learning prospers more than the environments 
about it. Education was a necessity, not a luxury those days. 
Men entered college for work, not for play. They entered college 
to equip themselves for the great task of recuperating the family's 
losses; none entered "for the purpose of finishing their education." 
They had barely enough of financial resources to pay tuition fees 


and none for initiation fees. "Going to college*' was alto- 
gether a serious business. 

Still, Alpha Tau Omega progressed. Alpha and Beta con- 
tinued to prosper. Six community chapters were readily estab- 
lished. Two years after the foundation, the third collegiate 
chapter was installed. Tennessee Lambda was founded at Cum- 
berland University, Lebanon, Tenn., by Thomas T. Eaton (Beta) 
on January 17, 1868, and for many years was one of the most 
dependable chapters of the fraternity. In the same year, Fred- 
erick A. Berlin (Beta) and William G. Bennett (Alpha), the former, 
now a leading attorney of the San Francisco bar, the latter, a 
judge of the West Virginia courts, while pursuing legal studies 
at the University of Virginia, founded Virginia Delta there and 
from that date (November 25, 1868) to the present the chapter 
has maintained an uninterrupted existence. In the follov/ing 
year James W. Marshall, an initiate of the Harrisonburg (Va.) 
community chapter, and, afterward, a member of the United 
States Congress, installed Virginia Bpsilon at Roanoke College, 
and in 1870 Thomas G. Hayes (Alpha) founded Kentucky Mu at 
the Kentucky Military Institute, Farmdale, which, although a 
small school, produced a large number of most worthy men who 
fully indicated the wisdom of placing a chapter there. 

Meanwhile, the first meeting of the Congress was held. At 
the date of the meeting (July 5, 1870) six collegiate chapters and 
six community chapters had been established. The community 
chapter at Murfreesboro, Tenn., had become a collegiate chapter in 
1867, and four community chapter charters had been withdrawn. 
At that date, therefore, there were seven collegiate chapters and 
one community chapter in active existence. The power to charter 
new chapters was taken from Virginia Alpha and conferred upon 
the Congress ; that is to say, upon the general fraternity, as were 
a 1 other general executive and legislative powers. It is interesting 
to note in this connection that Alpha Tau Omega was the first 
fraternity to abandon the governing chapter idea, and create 
in its stead a general body of delegates and officers with all the 
powers, of the fraternity. 

After tl\e meeting of the Congress extension became more 
rapid. In 1871 the University of Nashville was entered, but the 


chapter expired the next year with the close of the school. Joseph 
R. Anderson (Alpha) and Moye L. Wickes (Delta), then students 
at the University of Virginia, instituted Xi at Trinity College, 
Durham, N. C, and the same year (1872) Kentucky Omicron at 
Bethel College, Russelville, Ky., initiated three members before 
anti-fraternity laws killed the newly-instituted chapters. A. I. 
Branham, one of the fortunate three, had, in the chapter's shcrt 
life, grasped the prevalent idea of expansion and speedily installed 
a chapter at the East Tennessee University (now the University 
of Tennessee) and a community chapter at his home, Rome, Ga. 
Bethel Academy at Warren ton, Va., became the home of Virginia 
Rho, but the chapter lived only for a few months, as the charter 
having been illegally granted was quickly withdrawn. District 
of Columbia Upsilon was founded at Columbian University, in 
1874, and killed by anti-fraternity laws in 1875. 

While the work of extending the fraternity was going on at 
this most satisfactory pace, the fraternity itself was weakening. 
Not that the bond of union was less binding, nor the sense of 
loyalty less keen. But Congress was inefficient; the grand 
officers had few effectual powers, and most of them utterly failed 
to properly exercise the limited authority at their command ; the 
general treasury was empty; the archives scattered; records of 
value unpreserved and, although twenty-one charters had been 
granted, no one knew with any degree of accuracy, in 1876, how 
many were actually alive. The community chapters, such as 
still made pretensions to an existence, were abolished by an act 
of Congress. Interest in the Congress languished; at the Lexing- 
ton Congress of 1874, seven chapters were represented; in 1876 
only four responded and in 1877 seven assembled. The years 
1873, 1874, 1875 and 1876 constitute the critical period of cur 
history, and the real crisis was met and overcome just before 
the Richmond Congress of 1877. Joseph R. Anderson (Alpha) 
was elected Senior Grand Chief, the then title of the chief executive 
officer, at the Richmond Congress of 1876. To resuscitate the 
fraternity seemed then a hopeless task. But the superb energy 
and the tireless aggressiveness that characterized all his many 
and matchless efforts for Alpha Tau Omega won the day. With 
Benjamin F. Long (Xi), the Senior Grand Scribe, now a judge of 


the North Carolina courts, he spent many days, and together 
they produced order out of chaos. The lost archives were recov- 
ered; the records brought up to date; extensive correspondence 
and numerous journeys revived the lagging interest of the alumni. 
To what end Anderson labored is best evidenced by the fact that 
the fast expiring fraternity was reanimated with vigor, and that 
since the fraternity has had no paralleled experience. The 
results of Anderson's arduous labors were presented to the Rich- 
mond Congress of 1877 in an elaborate report, which, even at 
this date, is unsurpassingly interesting. The Richmond Congress 
was, by the way, the first Congress attended by any of the Found- 
ers. Dr. Glazebrook was present and has missed but one meeting 
since. Glazebrook and Anderson together breathed the second 
breath of life into Alpha Tau Omega. Glazebrook, Founder; 
Anderson, Rejuvenator ! 

The most important Congress cf our history was held a year 
later. The fraternity was ripe for many changes. Following 
Anderson's suggestions and with Glazebrook's hearty concurrence 
and co-operation, the ritual was revised, the rough and boisterous 
initiation ceremony of the early days being supplanted by the 
beautiful, stately and impressive rite now in use, in which the 
master hand of Glazebrook is plainly discernible; the secret 
work, except the pass, grip, etc., was rewritten and trans- 
lated into cipher, the cipher being the handiwork cf Gecrge W. 
Archer (Alpha) ; the fraternity was incorporated ; the constitution 
was entirely recast; the High Council, which has since become the 
most effective governing agency within the fraternity, was created ; 
the present division and separation of the several departments of 
the government of the fraternity was devised and a complete 
system of accounting was installed. The Baltimore Congress was 
a working Congress and the result of its labors are the very warp 
and woof of our present fabric. 

Meanwhile, extension had gone forward. The University 
of the South was entered in August, 1877, J. Q. To veil (Alpha) 
having founded the chapter. Lovell also secured permission to 
install a chapter to be called Alpha Gamma at the University of 
Louisiana about this time, but the chapter never materialized. 
Ten years later, Beta Epsilon was established at Tulane Univer- 


sity. It would have been quite proper to have called the Tulane 
chapter Alpha Gamma; for Tulane is virtually the State university 
of Louisiana. The indefatigable Anderson founded Alpha Alpha 
at Richmond College in September, 1878; Maryland Psi was 
installed at Johns Hopkins University in 1877, but made no 
initiations. Apparently, Alpha Gamma and Psi deserve no place 
on the chapter rolls. 

The results of the famous Baltimore Congress were scon 
^apparent in the matter of extension-. Extension was systema- 
tized; only institutions of strength and standing were, with rare 
exceptions, accepted ; only carefully selected men who gave some 
evidence of their ability to give permanency to the chapter were 
initiated as "charter members," and within a few years such 
splendid institutions as the University of Georgia, the University 
of North Carolina, the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Mercer 
University, Bingham's School and Emory College were entered. 
With the exception of the chapter at Bingham's School, these 
chapters are still in existence. The Bingham chapter existed 
sub rosa for fifteen years and died when its existence was dis- 
covered by the school's authorities. Although established at a 
preparatory school, it furnished the fraternity with some of its 
most notable alumni. In 1882 W. H. Lamar (Alpha Epsilon) 
installed chapters at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 
and the Oregon Industrial College, Corvallis, Ore., neither cf 
which existed longer than several months. 

But, by this time, the North had been invaded. Pennsyl- 
vania Tau had been installed, and for several years the interest 
of the fraternity was centered upon its Northern aspirations and 
progress. When the South again became the scene of action the 
fraternity was national in fact, as well as in principle. Thence- 
forth she knew neither North, nor South, nor East, nor West. 



We have already said that the establishment of chapters in 
the North was contemplated by the Founders. That object was 
never forgotten nor neglected. Confined by circumstances to 
the South, the fraternity never surrendered its ambitious Northern 
propoganda. One of the first legislative acts of the first Congress 
granted permission to Robert A. Waller (Beta) to institute a 
chapter at the University of Chicago. Having failed to accom- 
plish that end, he was permitted to found Illinois Chi, a community 
chapter, at Chicago, in 1875, ^ time when community chapters 
were no longer in favor. But beyond this nothing was accom- 
plished in the North until 1881. 

It was difficult to establish chapters in the North. We have 
seen the obstacles to be surmounted to plant chapters at the 
Southern institutions. But to secure the adherence of Northern 
men to a Southern fraternity was far more difficult. There was 
apparently a deep-seated prejudice against the Southern frater- 
nities. The feeling engendered by the war had not entirely 
subsided — Northern politicians had ingeniously managed to keep 
the Northern public inflamed against their Southern neighbors. 
Surely, there was need for a fraternity in the North that could 
inculcate the principles and ideals of Alpha Tau Omega ! Besides, 
there seemed to be some doubt as to the character of the member- 
ship of the Southern fraternities. Alpha Tau Omega was often 
called "the nigger frat" — implying that negroes held member- 
ship — evidently a misunderstanding of the significance of the 
name applied to the fraternity at the Virginia Military Institute, 
where the Alpha Taus were known as "the black feet" in contra- 
distinction to the Sigma Nus, who were called "the white feet." 
Then, too, Northern men were averse to a connection with a 
Southern fraternity when a charter could be secured from many 


of the Eastern and Western fraternities with comparative ease 
and without great effort. Moreover, Northerners desired a 
connection that afforded Northern associates — nearby chapters, 
neighboring alumni, etc. — which no Southern fraternity could 
then offer. And, by this time. Northern institutions were occu- 
pied by as many chapters as they could well afford to support. 
The Eastern and Western fraternities had been busily engaged 
in strengthening their internal organizations and extending their 
borders in the fifteen years succeeding the war. Some of their 
older chapters had existed for many years, had large bodies of 
well-known and influential alumni and were rich in wealth and 
traditions — and fraternity houses were becoming the prevailing 
style. Phi Delta Theta, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, 
Theta Delta Chi and others had about four hundred chapters in 
Northern institutions, and usually disputed every endeavor of 
their Southern rivals to secure Northern chapters. 

It is sometimes said that Alpha Tau Omega was the first 
Southern fraternity to establish a Northern chapter. This is 
not correct, unless the establishment of the community chapter 
at Chicago in 1875 be so regarded. Kappa Sigma was the first 
fraternity of pure Southern origin to establish a Northern chap- 
ter. Kappa Sigma was founded at the University of Virginia 
in 1869, established fourteen chapters in the South, and the 
fifteenth at Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, 111., on October 
23, 1880, by absorbing Zeta Epsilon, a local literary society. 
Anti-fraternity regulations soon killed the chapter and Kappa 
Sigma established no other Northern chapter until 1885. 

Alpha Tau Omega soon followed by establishing Pennsylvania 
Tau at the University of Pennsylvania on April 8, 1881. The 
story of the founding of Pennsylvania Tau is most interesting. 
In one of the early numbers of the Palm, Joseph R. Anderson, 
then the editor, published a ringing editorial calling attention to 
the objects of the fraternity and the great need of Northern chap- 
ters in order to accomplish those objects. He called upon alumni 
residing in the North — of whom there were few — to embrace the 
many splendid opportunities to establish one. Strange enough, 
the response came not from an Alpha Tau, but from a prominent 
member and officer of another fraternity. Dr. Edgar F. Smith, 


then the assistant professor of Chemistry at the University of 
Pennsylvania, now the president of the institution, was then the 
editor of the Shield of Phi Kappa Psi. He read Anderson's 
editorial in the Palm, with which the Shield maintained exchange 
relations, and immediately engaged in correspondence with 
Anderson. Dr. Smith generously undertook to gather the nucleus 
of a chapter for Alpha Tau Omega and, in pursuance of the 
arrangements, finally perfected, Sylvanus Stokes (Delta), then a 
member of the High Council, was dispatched to Philadelphia. 
There, in the old Continental Hotel, he administered to N. Wiley 
Thomas, then a student at the University, the obligation that 
made him the first initiate north of the historic Mason and Dixon 
line. A few days thereafter, Thomas initiated five more men and 
the chapter was a reality. 

Once an opening made, further chapters soon followed. In 
the fall of 1 88 1 Dr. Smith accepted the professoriate of Chemistry 
at Muhlenberg College, AUentown, Pa., and Thomas followed to 
complete his course of study under his old preceptor. There, on 
October 14, 1881, he established Pennsylvania Alpha Iota. In 
the following spring (March 20, 1882), Alpha Rho was installed 
by him at Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa., six miles 
from Allentown. Washington and Jefferson, at Washington, Pa., 
was next entered, the local chapter of Alpha Gamma, a decadent 
national fraternity, having petitioned for a charter. A few months 
later (June 27, 1882) Dr. Thomas organized Alpha Upsilon at 
Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg. In two years after the installa- 
tion of Pennsylvania Tau, Dr. Thomas had planted four flourishing 
chapters at as many good Pennsylvania institutions. Later, 
while teaching at Wittenberg College, Springfield, O., Dr. Thomas 
made the acquaintance of E. J. Shives, then a student at Witten- 
berg, and through him a chapter was gathered which Dr. Thomas 
installed on November 8, 1883. Afterward, Shives became an 
apostle of fraternity extension in the Middle West, and a number 
of the chapters there may be traced to his influence and efforts. 

Meanwhile, others were busily engaged in organizing Northern 
chapters. Ohio Alpha Nu, the first chapter in that State, was 
installed at Mount Union College, Alliance, by W. H. Lamar 
(Alpha Epsilon) on February 14, 1882. A distressing and almost 


fatal accident to Founder Glazebrook became the means of 
further extension. In July, 1881, while returning to his home in 
Macon, Ga., after a visit to the Alpha Epsilon chapter at Auburn, 
Ala., the train was wrecked and Dr. Glazebrook sustained serious 
injuries. In the fall of that year he was removed to St. Luke's 
Hospital, New York, for expert treatment. While there he had 
splendid opportunities to carry forward his cherished hopes for 
Northern chapters. A meeting of the High Council, of which 
he was the chairman, was held at the hospital, and as a result of 
its deliberations and following the active prosecution of the work 
of extension, chapters were chartered and installed as follows: 
Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. (October 15, 
1881) ; Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. (October 14, 1881) ; Columbia 
University (November 25, 1881); St. Lawrence University, 
Canton, N. Y. (March 18, 1882). 

The period of Northern extension may be said to have ended 
with the installation of Ohio Alpha Psi at Wittenberg in 1883. 
Thereafter, extension was general; that is, confined to no section, 
but all sections securing chapters from time to time. At the end 
of that year forty-six charters had been granted, eight of which 
were granted to community chapters, two to chapters never 
formally organized, one to a chapter in Oregon, eleven to chapters 
in the North and twenty-four to chapters in the South. Of the 
thirty-six established collegiate chapters, twelve were then inac- 
tive on account of various causes. 




Included in the total of the forty-six charters granted and 
chapters established, mentioned in the last lines of the preceding 
chapter, are two chapters — Alpha Tau and Alpha Chi — not 
heretofore mentioned. Alpha Tau was installed April 12, 1882, 
at the Southwestern Presbyterian University, Clarkesville, Tenn. 
It was formed by absorbing the local chapter of the defunct 
national fraternity, Alpha Gamma. The other surviving chapters 
of the fraternity ; namely, those at the University of Alabama and 
Washington and Jefierson College, likewise petitioned for and 
received charters from Alpha Tau Omega. Alpha Chi was estab- 
lished April I, 1883, at the "Citadel" Academy, the popular 
name for the South Carolina Military Academy, at Charleston, 
S. C. Although a small school. Alpha Tau Omega was followed 
by chapters of each of the Southern fraternities, all of which were 
successfully maintained until 1890, when anti-fraternity regula- 
tions were adopted and enforced. In the same year, a chapter 
was installed at the South Carolina College, at one time called 
the University of South Carolina, at Columbia. At various 
times fourteen fraternities maintained chapters at the institution, 
but anti-fraternity laws killed Alpha Tau Omega, Pi Kappa Alpha, 
Kappa Sigma, Chi Phi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Kappa 
Alpha and Chi Psi in 1897. 

During 1884 chapters at the University of Florida and 
Central University, Richmond, Ky., were founded, and during 
the succeeding year Simpson College, Indianola, la. ; Southern 
University, Greensboro, Ala. ; Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Boston, and the University of Alabama were entered. 
The Florida chapter surrendered its charter in 1890, when a 
political fight within the State caused a disagreement among the 
members of the faculty and the consequent decline of the school. 


In 1905, when the institution became the central State university, 
the chapter was revived. The Central University chapter sur- 
rendered its charter in 1890. The chapter at Simpson did not 
long survive the rather keen and pronounced sentiment against 
fraternities prevailing at the institution and voluntarily surrend- 
ered its charter. No regulations prohibiting fraternities were 
formally enacted by the college authorities, and the action of the 
chapter in surrendering its charter was at once commendable and 
singular. The chapter has since been revived. 

In 1887 the chapters at Tulane University, University of 
Vermont, Ohio Wesleyan University and Cornell University were 
established. The first was organized by O. N. O. Watts (Zeta), 
who having prepared at Central University, completed his course 
at Tulane. Ohio Wesleyan was organized by H. C. Phillips (Alpha 
Psi), who pursued a course of study at that institution after 
graduating at Wittenberg College. Larkin W. Glazebrook 
(Alpha Zeta) established the Cornell chapter while pursuing 
medical studies in New York. 

The Vermont chapter was founded by C. S. Ferris, of the St. 
Lawrence University chapter, who crossed Lake Champlain to 
establish Vermont Beta Zeta. The Vermont chapter, besides 
maintaining a splendid organization continuously since its founda- 
tion, became a propogating chapter for the New England States. 
Four years after the establishment of Vermont Beta Zeta, F. W. 
Norris, of that chapter, organized a chapter at the University 
of Maine. Two years later, George Maguire, of the Maine chapter, 
and since then a Province Chief and member of the High Council, 
installed flourishing chapters at Colby College and Tufts College, 
and in 1906 he organized the chapter at the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, and revived the chapter at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, which had been inactive since 1886. Vermont 
men organized the Brown University chapter in 1894. The Ver- 
ment chapter is, therefore, the progenitor of all the New England 
chapters, except the original chapter at the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, which descends from Pennsylvania ancestry. 

In 1888 five chapters were instituted. H. H. Starks, of the 
Adrian chapter, organized a chapter at Hillsdale, and the Adrian 
and Hillsdale chapters established the University of Michigan 


chapter in the same year. A chapter was founded at Albion 
College, Albion, Mich., in the following year by Dr. J. T. Rugh, 
of the Adrian chapter. The Michigan chapters descend directly 
from the Adrian chapter. Besides Hillsdale and Michigan, 
chapters were instituted at the University of Wooster, Wooster, 
O.; the Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga., and the 
Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College, Milledgeville, 
Ga., in the same year of 1888. The last named was promptly 
killed by anti-fraternity regulations. 

In 1889 and 1890 chapters at the College of Charlestcn, 
Charleston, S. C; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.; 
Albion College, Albion, Mich. ; Marietta College, Marietta, O. ; and 
Hampden-Sydney College, Prince Edward County, Va., were 
organized. Of these, the two last named became inactive within 
several years and have never been revived. 

From 1 891 to 1894, inclusive, the following chapters were 
installed: University of Maine; Wofford College, Spartanburg, 
S. C; Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.; Iceland Stanford, 
Junior, University, Pala Alto, Cal.; Ohio State University; Colby 
College, Waterville, Me.; Tufts College, Medford, Mass.; Rose 
Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Ind. ; Southwestern Baptist 
University, now called Union University, Jackson, Tenn., and 
Brown University. The chapters at Haverford and Wofford 
were killed by anti-fraternity regulations. The chapter at 
Stanford suspended in 1898, but was revived in August, 1911. 
The rest have maintained continuous existences. 

About this time the policy of the fraternity with respect to 
expansion was radically changed. At the Washington Congress 
of 1894 lyarkin W. Glazebrook, the son of Founder Glazebrook, 
was elected Worthy Grand Chief, succeeding E- J. Shives as the 
chief executive officer. Shives was Worthy Grand Chief for 
eight years (i 887-1 894), a term longer than that of any other 
man. He had entered the fraternity in 1883, during the aggres- 
sive and spirited campaign for Northern chapters, and, very 
naturally, became imbued with the notion, then prevalent in 
the Greek world, that a large number of chapters gave a fraternity 
strength and character, and this, without qualification as to the 
size, standing or location of the institutions with which chapters 


were connected. Accordingly, during his long term of service, 
twenty chapters were installed, several at comparatively small 
colleges and others at points where fraternities were not welcomed. 
Glazebrook was a younger man in years and experience. Con- 
servatism was then the prevailing idea in all the fraternities of 
the country. From 1 898 to 1 905 the twenty-nine general, national, 
men's fraternities added only 175 chapters to their rolls — an 
average of six to the fraternity — a number lower than that of any 
like period of time. Glazebrook was frankly conservative. He 
believed that fraternities could well afford to be extremely slow 
in extending their lines. He desired not fewer chapters, but 
more chapters at larger institutions. He looked upon the large 
and prospering institutions of the West as the most promising 
fields for expansion and, in the meantime, he would strengthen 
and develop the internal affairs of the fraternity; i. e., he proposed 
to issue the much needed catalogue, institute a province system 
and otherwise strengthen the chapters. His ambitions were more 
than satisfied during his term of office. During his official life 
of six years only five charters were granted — Austin College, 
University of Illinois, University of Nebraska, University of 
Texas and the University of California. The Austin College 
chapter surrendered its charter in 1900. 

Of course, it is not to be inferred from the foregoing, that 
either Shives or Glazebrook dominated the fraternity to the extent 
that their views upon the matter of expansion in general caused 
the acceptance or rejection of specific opportunities of extension. 
Charters were granted or refused by the chapters and not by the 
executive officers. Shives and Glazebrook, each in his turn, 
merely reflected or represented the general opinion of the fra- 
ternity as that opinion changed from time to time. From 1865 
to 1880 there was an insistent demand for Northern chapters. 
Northern chapters secured, the chapters in the North demanded 
neighbors in the East and Middle West, while the Southern 
chapters demanded that the splendid opportunities still open in 
the South should be embraced. But by the end of 1894, seventy 
collegiate chapters had been installed, cf which thirty-eight were 
active. These were scattered along the Atlantic slope and the 
eastern basin of the Mississippi. There was little desire for exten- 


sion, except by the smaller and isolated chapters and by the aggres- 
sive Western chapters. Nevertheless, the chapters were extremely 
and occasionally, foolishly, conservative. In fact, the constitu- 
tion was revised at the Birmingham Congress of 1906, very 
largely because the number of chapters thai could veto an appli- 
cation for a charter was so very small that further progress 
was almost impossible. In some years since 1895 the fraternity 
has rejected eight applications for every charter granted. Since 
1907, under the revised Constitution, extension has been facili- 
tated, but the policy of confining chapters to new fields has not 
been departed from, and many of the charters recently granted 
were secured by the petitioners after years of patient waiting and 
unrelenting efforts to convince the fraternity of the wisdom of 
further extension. 

Since 1900 fourteen chapters have been instituted. With 
two exceptions, they are State universities or State-aid colleges 
and most are located in the trans-Mississippi country. The 
chapters, with the date of their installations, are as follows: 

1 901, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, O.; University of 
Colorado, Boulder, Col.; University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

1902, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 1904, Uni- 
versity of Chicago, Purdue University. 1906, University of 
Washington, University of Missouri, Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute. 1907, University of W^isconsin. 1908, Iowa State 
College. 1909, University of Kentucky. 1910, University of 
Oregon. 191 1, Washington State College. 



The desire to perpetuate the ties formed while members of 
the active chapters and to widen the circle of friendship among 
men in the same community, lead to the formation of associations 
of alumni members. Just when the first association was formed, 
where, how and by whom, is not now known. It is known that 
the early associations were called "State" associations and con- 
sisted of the alumni members of the several States. At one time 
their number was considerable and the early volumes of the 
Palm contain many interesting accounts of the yearly conventions 
held by them. That associations of alumni existed before 1880 
is evident by the fact that the Macon Congress of that year adopted 
legislation regulating and encouraging their organization. Suc- 
ceeding Congresses have followed and to-day the alumni associ- 
ations enjoy privileges rarely granted to similar associations by 
Greek fraternities. They send voting delegates to the Congress, 
and in other respects actively participate in the work of the fra- 
ternity. On the other hand, the associations have been cf 
incalculable benefit to the active chapters. 

The associations in existence now are: State — California, 
Colorado, District of Columbia, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachu- 
setts, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Carolina, Texas, Washington. 
Ccmmunity — ^ Western Carolina, Western New York. City — Allen- 
town, Pa. ; Alliance, O. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Birmingham, Ala. ; Char- 
lotte, N. C. ; Chicago, 111. ; Cleveland, O. ; Columbus, O. ; Cincinnati, 
O. ; Dallas, Tex. ; Dayton, O. ; Denver, Col. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Kansas 
City, Mo.; Los Angeles, Cal.; Louisville, Ky. ; Manila, Philippine 
Islands ; Milwaukee, Wis. ; Mobile, Ala. ; Montgomery, Ala. ; Nash- 
ville, Tenn. ; New York, N. Y. ; Pensacola, Fla. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Portland, Ore. ; Providence, R. I. ; Reading, Pa. ; 
San Antonio, Tex.; Savannah, Ga. ; Springfield, O. ; St. Louis, 
Mo.; St. Paul, Minn.; Salt Lake City, Ut.; Youngstown, O. 
Club — Harvard. Total y 49. 


r VII. 


It is desired to present a mere outline of the system whereby 
Alpha Tau Omega transacts its business. Anything more would 
be impossible within the narrow limits of this volume — to say noth- 
ing of the laws forbidding the publication cf the constitution. 

In the history of Alpha Tau Omega there have been four 
constitutions, each of which provided systems of government 
differing from each other. The first was adopted by the Founders 
and ratified by the first chapter. Under it, the first chapter, 
Virginia Alpha, was the supreme executive power. All charters 
were granted by it and all regulations enacted by it were binding: 
upon the chapters so constituted. The constitution provided for 
the calling of a congress of the delegates of all the chapters within 
five years from the establishment of the first chapter, impliedly 
suggesting that thereafter the powers of the parent or executive 
chapter should cease. 

The first Congress was convened on July 5, 1870, within five 
years of the establishment of the first chapter, continued the first 
constitution with such changes and amendments as were made 
necessary by the transfer of executive and legislative authority 
from Virginia Alpha to the Congress and to the general officers 
by it elected. The general officers were called Senior Grand 
Master, Junior Grand Master, Senior Grand Scribe and Junior 
Grand Scribe. 

The second, third and fourth Congresses made considerable 
changes in the organic law, none of which require mention, except 
that the fourth Congress changed the titles and functions of the 
grand officers and created a separate judicial department. The 
officers were then called Senior Grand Chief, Assistant Senior 
Grand Chief, Junior Grand Chief, High Chancellor and Vice 
High Chancellor. The final result of the labors of these meetings 
was a second constitution. 


No system thus far devised had been entirely satisfactory; 
"and in 1878 an entirely new instrument was adopted. This pro- 
vided a system of government radically different than any pre- 
ceding, changed the names of the general officers, enlarged their 
powers, provided new officers, created the High Council, organized 
:new departments and, in general, set up the frame of government 
'which, amended and revised, has continued in its essentials to 
this date. 

The Congress of 1906 provided the fourth and last constitu- 
tion. This constitution is a comprehensive revision of the con- 
stitution of 1878, amending that instrument to make it conform 
and respond to new and altered conditions. 

Since 1878 the government of the fraternity has been divided 
into three separate, distinct and co-ordinate departments ; namely, 
legislative, executive and judicial. 

The legislative department consists of the Congress and the 
High Council. The Congress consists of one delegate from each 
active chapter and one alumnus, elected by the alumni associations 
of each State. This body meets biennially — upon the last 
Wednesday of each even numbered year — and, within the limits 
prescribed by the Constitution, may legislate upon any matter 
considered necessary for the welfare of the fraternity, subject, 
however, to a limited veto power exercisable by the Worthy 
Grand Chief. The Congress elects the grand officers and the 
High Council, who are responsible to the Congress for their acts 
and report to it biennially. Charters for new chapters are not 
granted by the Congress, nor can the Congress provide for the 
granting of charters in any manner contrary to. the constitution. 
The High Council consists of five members, elected by the Con- 
gress for a term of four years, and, between meetings of Congress, 
exercises to a limited extent the legislative functions of that body. 
Laws enacted by it are valid until the meeting of Congress suc- 
ceeding the enactment. In conjunction with the grand officers 
it exercises important executive functions; e. g., confirming 
appointments made by the Worthy Grand Chief, countersigning 
warrants upon the treasury and generally advising and controlling 
the executive officers. In rare instances it constitutes the supreme 
judicial body of the fraternity. 


The executive department consists of the Worthy Grand 
Chief, Worthy Grand Chaplain, Worthy Grand Keeper of the 
Exchequer, Worthy Grand Keeper of Annals, Worthy Grand 
Scribe, Worthy Grand Usher, Worthy Grand Sentinel and the 
Province Chiefs. These officers, with the exception of the three 
last named, are elected by the Congress for a term of two years. 
The Worthy Grand Usher, Worthy Grand Sentinel and the Province 
Chiefs are appointed by the Worthy Grand Chief and hold their 
offices during his pleasure. The Worthy Grand Chief is the chief 
executive officer of the fraternity, has the custody of the seal, 
appoints committees and subordinate officers, presides at all 
meetings of the Congress, countersigns all warrants upon the 
treasury, receives the reports of chapters, supervises and directs 
the work of the Province Chiefs and, generally, conducts the 
routine business of the fraternity. The Worthy Grand Keeper 
of the Exchequer and the Worthy Grand Scribe are, respectively, 
the treasurer and secretary of the fraternity. The Worthy Grand 
Keeper of Annals is the fraternity's historian, and keeps the lists 
and records of initiates. 

The judicial department consists of the Worthy High Chan- 
cellor, elected by Congress for a period of two years. The Worthy 
High Chancellor decides all appeals from the decision of chapters 
and Congress; construes the provisions of the constitution, the 
laws of Congress and the by-laws of the chapters, approves the 
judgments of chapters in proceedings against its members, and, 
generally, acts as the attorney for the fraternity. 

The Province Chiefs are appointed by the Worthy Grand 
Chief with the advice and consent of the High Council, and perform 
such duties as are required by him and the laws of the fraternity. 
The fraternity is divided into nine provinces, each consisting of 
the active chapters in one or more States. The Province Chiefs 
liave immediate supervision over the chapters in their several 
jurisdictions and are virtually deputies of the Worthy Grand 
Chief in the extent and nature of their powers and duties. The 
province system was established in 1898 and has produced grati- 
fying results. Not among the least are the conclaves — annual or 
biennial meetings of the representatives of the chapters and 
-alun^ni associations of each province. These bodies have no 


legislative powers, but are powerful factors in promoting the 
objects, principles and welfafe of the fraternity. 

Membership in the fraternity is possible only by election and 
initiation into one of the active chapters. The chapters are 
located at various institutions of learning throughout the United 
States and are established by the granting of a charter. The 
charters are granted by the Worthy Grand Chief and the High 
Council to a body of petitioners, usually called a club, which has 
complied with certain requisites, among which are the maintenance 
of a separate, independent organization for at least six months 
prior to filing a petition. The Worthy Grand Chief and the High 
Council may issue a charter only upon the authority of the active 
chapters secured in the manner provided by the constitution. 

The chapters consist of all the active members of the fra- 
ternity attending the institution of learning for which the chapter 
is established. The chapter is regulated by the constitution, the 
laws of the Congress, the orders of the Worthy Grand Chief and 
the High Council, and such by-laws as it may enact with the 
approval of the Worthy Grand Chief. Members are initiated 
by the chapter and such persons become ipso facto members of the 
general fraternity. 

After graduation or upon leaving college, membership in 
the fraternity does not cease. "Once an Alpha Tau, always an 
Alpha Tau " is the sentiment written into the constitution. Mem- 
bership is forfeited only by unworthy conduct. Members may, 
after graduation, join an alumni association, although post- 
graduate membership in the general fraternity is not dependent 
upon connection with alumni associations. Alumni associations 
consist in cities of ten and in States of twenty-five or more members 
and are granted charters by the Worthy Grand Chief. They have 
no power of initiation. 

Tables are herewith published, showing the times and places 
of the meetings of the Congress, the officers of the fraternity from 
the beginning to date; and the Province Chiefs, the construction 
of the several provinces and the conclaves held by each. 



Herein it is desired to submit brief statements concerning 
several noteworthy achievements and events of our history not 
elsewhere mentioned. No attempt is made to collate and discuss 
here every known fact and circumstance omitted from other 
portions of this manual. Rather, we have selected and here 
present certain results and features of our work and activity as 
a fraternity which could not be logically inserted in other chapters 
of this work, and yet should be noticed somewhere. However, 
the inclusion or omission of any fact or phase of our development 
as a fraternity argues nothing except that the compiler either has 
or has not noticed it. He has not sat as a judge and decided, by 
some fixed law, the claims to mention in this chapter. 

No attempt is made to set down the many commendable 
achievements of the chapters. To do so would require more 
space than is now at our command. 


The Baltimore Congress of 1878 authorized the incorporation 
of the fraternity, and on January 10, 1879, the Supreme Court of 
Baltimore, Md., granted a charter to the members selected by the 
Congress as the committee to secure a proper charter. 

It will be noticed that the corporate name of the fraternity 
is "Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity of Baltimore City." 

The full text of the charter is herewith presented. It has 
been thought wise to insert the same here, so that it may be readily 
accessible to reference in the future. It should be noted that the 
charter limits the duration of the fraternity to forty years from 
January 10, 1879. ^^^ charter must be extended at the expiration 
of that time. 

Alpha Tau Omega was the first national fraternity to be 


incorporated. Alpha Delta Phi, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Kappa 
Epsilon followed in the order mentioned. 


Know All Men By These Presents, That we, Thomas G. Hayes, 
of Baltimore City, Md., Mareen D. Humes, of Baltimore City, Md,, 
James B. Green, of Baltimore City, Md., Joseph R. Anderson, Jr., of 
Richmond, Va., George W. Archer, of Richmond, Va., being citizens of 
the United States and a majority of whom are citizens of the State of 
Maryland, do hereby certify that we do, under and by virtue of the 
General Laws of this State authorizing the formation of corporations, 
hereby form a corporation under the name of ALPHA TAU OMEGA 

Second. We do further certify that the said corporation so formed 
is a corporation for the following purposes, to wit: 

(tt) For the purpose of promoting and cultivating social intercourse 
among its members as set forth in class one, section fourteen of the General 
Incorporation Law. 

(6) For the purpose of buying, selling, mortgaging, loaning, improv- 
ing, disposing of or otherwise dealing with land in this State and partly 
beyond this State as set forth in class eight, section sixteen of the General 
Incorporation Law. 

(c) For the purpose of a secret fraternity for the promotion and 
culture of friendship and brotherly love among the members, said asso- 
ciation being of a kindred kind to the Free and Accepted Masons as set 
forth in class five, section eighteen of the General Incorporation Law; 
that the term of existence of the said corporation is limited to forty years 
and that the said corporation is formed upon the articles, conditions and 
provisions herein expressed and subject in all particulars to the limitations 
relating to corporations which are contained in the General Laws of this 

Third. We do further certify that the operations of the said corpor- 
ation are to be carried on in the City of Baltimore and the counties of the 
State of Maryland and in the cities and counties of all the States and 
Territories of the United States and that the principal office of the said 
corporation will be located in Baltimore City. 

Fourth. We do further certify that the aggregate of the capital of 
the said corporation is nothing; the said corporation having no capital 

Fifth. We do further certify that the said corporation will be 
managed by a board of officers and that said board of officers are to be 
known as the Grand Officers and High Council, and that Grand Officers 
Thomas G. Hayes, Otis A. Glazebrook, Mareen D. Humes, Joseph R. 
Anderson, Jr., Sylvanus Stokes, John W. Weber, Ignatius L. Candler, 


and the High Council: Joseph R. Anderson Jr., James B. Green, Otis A. 
Glazebrook, Frank H. Maginnis, Thomas T. Eaton are the names of the 
Grand Officers and High Council who will manage the concerns of the 
said corporation for the first year. 

In Witness Whereof, We have hereunto set our hands and seals, this 

first day of January, In the Year of Our Lord, Eighteen Hundred and 

Seventy-Nine. Thos. G. Hayes, [Seal.] 

Witness: Mareen D. Humes, [Seal.] 

John W. Taylor. James B. Green, [Seal.] 

Joseph R. Anderson, [Seal.] 

George W. Archer, [Seal.] 

State of Maryland 1 
Baltimore City / 

Before the subscriber, a Justice of the Peace of the State of Mary- 
land, in and for the City of Baltimore, personally appeared, on this first 
day of January, Eighteen Hundred and Seventy-Nine, Thomas G. Hayes, 
Mareen D. Humes, James B. Green, Joseph R. Anderson, Jr., George W. 
Archer and did severally acknowledge the foregoing certificate to be their 
act and deed. 

John W. Taylor, /. P. 

I, George W. Dobbin, one of the Judges of the Supreme Bench of 
Baltimore City, do hereby certify that the foregoing certificate has been 
submitted to me for my examination. And I do further certify that the 
said certificate is in conformity with the provisions of the law authorizing 
the formation of said corporation. January 10, 1879. 

George W. Dobbins. 

Filed for record, January 10, 1879, at 10 A. M. Same day, recorded 
and examined per F. A. Prevost, Clerk. 

Recorded in Liber, F. A. P., Volume 20, folio 247 et seq., one of the 
Charter Records of Baltimore City. 

Public Exercises. 

Literary exercises were a part of the programme of the regular 
meetings of the first chapter of Alpha Tau Omega. The members 
of the chapter followed the example cf the chapters of the older 
college fraternities, many cf which were in point of fact micre 
literary societies to which had been added the features of exclusive- 
ness and secrecy. They seemed to emphasize literary activities, 
often at the expense of the fraternal and social side of their asso- 
ciations. The early chapters of Alpha Tau Omega managed to 
strike a happy mean. 


Literary exercises became a part of the regular programme 
of the first meetings of the Congress. They were and are still 
called "public exercises," are held on the afternoon of the second 
day of the session of the Congress, and the public generally is 
cordially invited, both by newspaper and by mail, to be present. 
The exercises revolve about the "Congress Oration" and the 
"Congress Poem" and consist usually of the foregoing, an 
address of welcome, a response to the address of wel- 
come, interspersed with appropriate music. The address of wel- 
come is delivered by a member of the fraternity residing in 
the city where the Congress meets. The response to the address 
is made by a member of the fraternity selected by the Worthy 
Orand Chief. The oration and the poem are written and delivered 
.by members selected by the previous Congress to perform the 
tasks. The Worthy Grand Chief presides at the public exercises. 

The exercises are notably successful. They are largely 
attended by the members of the Congress and by the citizens of the 
"Congress city" generally. In many cases the large auditoriums 
in which the exercises were held have been crowded to the very 
doors by the people of the cities, and the splendid impression thus 
created has given Alpha Tau Omega a name and distinction such 
as no other of the larger fraternities has achieved. 

Prize Essay Contest. 

In 1903 the New York Alumni Association, then the most 
active and aggressive association of the fraternity, offered a cash 
prize of fifty dollars to that person, whether a member of the 
fraternity or otherwise, writing the best essay defending the 
intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity system. This contest 
was widely advertised, aroused vast interest and secured favorable 
comments for the fraternity from many sources. The judges 
were ex-President Grover Cleveland and David Starr Jordan, 
president of the University of California. The prize was awarded 
to Fletcher B. Wagner, of Leland Stanford, Junior, University, 
for an essay entitled: "The Influences of the College Fra- 


Chapter Houses. 

Alpha Tau Omega has kept pace with other fraternities in the 
building, owning and occupation of chapter houses. 

The first chapter of any fraternity to occupy a house was the 
University of Michigan chapter of Chi Psi in 1846. The example 
was soon followed by other fraternities. By the year 1883 there 
were thirty-three houses in occupancy and in 1905 almost eight 
hundred. In 191 1 the number is doubtless more than a thousand. 

The first chapter of Alpha Tau Omega to occupy a house was 
the chapter at the University of the South, which occupied a 
small house in 1880 and acquired its own house in 1888. 

At this time the chapters at the following institutions have 
acquired their own houses: University of Maine, St. Lawrence 
University, Cornell University, Muhlenberg College, Gettysburg 
College, University of North Carolina, Wittenberg College, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, University of Colorado; University of Minne- 
sota, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute, University of the South. Total, 13. 

The chapters at the following institutions occupy rented 
houses: University of Vermont, University of Kansas, Univer- 
sity of Missouri, University of Nebraska, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Tufts College, Washington and Jefferson College, 
Lehigh University, University of Pennsylvania, Trinity College, 
University of Virginia, Ohio Wesleyan University, University 
of Wooster, Ohio State University, Western Reserve University, 
University of Kentucky, Vanderbilt University, University of 
Tennessee, University of California, University of Oregon, Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University, Washington State College, University 
of Washington, Emory College, Georgia School of Technology, 
University of Texas, University of Chicago, Rose Polytechnic 
Institute, Purdue University, Hillsdale College, University of 
Michigan, Albion College, University of Wisconsin, Simpson 
College, Iowa State College, Tulane University, University of 
Georgia, Washington and Lee University. Total, 38. 

At a number of institutions chapters are prohibited from 
occupying houses. At others the chapter occupies a certain por- 
tion of the dormitories especially set aside for its use, thus enjoying 
all the privileges with none of the obligations of a chapter house. 


Twice in the history of the fraternity it was proposed to have 
the general fraternity assume the duty of building or aiding in 
building chapter houses. At the Springfield Congress of 1888 
the High Council proposed a plan whereby each active member 
was to be assessed the sum of ten dollars per annum for a building 
fund, the fund so raised to be expended by the High Council for 
the construction and erection of fraternity houses throughout 
the country. The plan was not adopted by the Congress. At 
the New Orleans Congress of 1898 it was decided to issue engraved 
certificates of membership at the rate of five dollars each. The 
funds realized by the sale of the certificate were to be loaned to 
chapters erecting houses. The certificates were procured, but 
few were sold and the plan was never carried out. 

Founder's Day. 

At the Birmingham Congress of 1906 Worthy Grand Chief 
E. P. Lyon suggested that a day be set apart each year for the 
proper celebration of the birth of the fraternity. He suggested 
September nth of each year, that being the anniversary of the 
foundation of the fraternity and advised that, in instances when 
institutions of learning were not open upon that date, exercises 
should be held at a later and the most convenient date. He 
further recommended that the day be known as "Founder's 
Day," and that the occasion be improved by studying the history 
and principles of the fraternity. 

The recommendation was adopted by the Congress and 
favorably received by the fraternity. The chapters and alumni 
associations have usually observed the day by holding some 
suitable entertainment, either a banquet or smoker, with literary 
exercises appropriate to the event commemorated. The exercises 
are held, most frequently during the month of October, that being 
the most convenient season. 

Honor Roli.. 

During the past decade the college fraternities have suffered 
much adverse criticism from college authorities on the ground 
that the fraternities apparently have emphasized the social and 
athletic to the utter neglect of the scholastic side of college life. 


In some instances, comparisons of attainments in intellectual 
pursuits between fraternity men and non-fraternity men seemed 
to corroborate the criticisms thus aimed at the fraternities gener- 
ally. At all events, the fraternities have now bestirred themselves 
and are stimulating, by precept and example, greater interest 
among their undergraduate membership in the real business and 
purpose of a college career. 

It is interesting to know that Alpha Tau Omega was the first 
fraternity to devise a practical and tangible method of empha- 
sizing its interest in scholastic attainments. In April, 1907, 
Worthy Grand Chief B. P. Lyon announced that, with the approval 
of the High Council, he proposed to establish an Honor Roll. 
Dr. Lyon is an educator of eminence and experience. He 
noted that fraternities and college men generally were apt to do 
honor to the men excelling in some sport or contest not a part of 
the curriculum. He proposed that the fraternity reward those of 
its members who had pursued their studies so assiduously and so 
ably as to win some mark of distinction from their instructors. 
To such he would issue a beautifully engraved certificate, which, 
under the seal of the fraternity, would attest the owner's merits 
and distinction, and the name of the person securing the certificate 
should be placed upon the Roll of Honor. 

The plan, thus established, has worked splendidly. Since 
1907 more than a hundred names have been placed upon the 
roll. The distinction was secured, usually, because of some 
special honor conferred by the college or university authorities 
or, frequently, because of an election to an honor society, like 
Phi Beta Kappa. Sometimes marked proficiency in debate or 
some other literary activity has secured the coveted prize. 

The "Honor men" are recommended to the Worthy Grand 
Chief by the several chapters, which submit to that officer the 
facts upon which the claim to distinction is founded. The 
Worthy Grand Chief selects those deemed by him worthy of the 
honor and, with the concurrence of the Chairman of the High 
Council, issues the certificates. The names of the men are an- 
nounced to the fraternity by an official letter and by publication 
in the Palm. The Palm also publishes the portraits of the men 
and brief sketches of their careers. 


As an additional means of stimulating interest in studies, 
the chapters are required to render periodical reports to the 
Province Chiefs, setting forth the collegiate standing of each 
active member. In this manner, the Province Chief is constantly 
advised of the progress of each of his many charges, and is enabled 
to use his good offices in behalf of the recalcitrant or the recreant. 
More than one Alpha Tau owes his diploma to the fraternal interest 
of his Province Chief. 

The Province Chiefs visit each chapter at least once in every 
year. They are expected to call upon the college authorities 
and from them learn, at first hand, the position occupied by the 
chapter. Frequently they are given information which enables 
them to set a chapter in order or, more frequently, to make some 
indolent student realize the frivolity of his ways. 

AivUMNi Letters. 

In 1907 Worthy Grand Chief B. P. Lyon addressed a circular 
letter to each alumnus of the fraternity, narrating the progress 
of the fraternity and setting forth the various objects in which 
he desired to interest them. The idea was so thoroughly success- 
ful in reviving the interest of men who resided at great distances 
from Alpha Tau centers that it has been continued each year 
since that time. 

With the 1908 letter and since, the Worthy Grand Chief has 
enclosed a "Recommendation Blank," that is, a blank form to be 
filled by an alumnus, recommending young men of his acquaint- 
ance about to enter college to the chapter at the college. In 
this manner many fine young men, who might otherwise have 
been overlooked in the stress of the strenuous fall "rushing" 
campaigns, have been secured for Alpha Tau Omega. The 
idea was first suggested and used by Wesley E. King, when Pro- 
vince Chief of Province II, in 1906. 



After the fraternity had shed the swaddling clothes of infancy, 
extended its borders to distant points and framed an adequate 
system of government, its greatest need was a means of communi- 
cation between its constituents. Prior to 1880 a system of inter- 
chapter communication — i. e., chapters were required to write 
quarterly letters to the grand officers and each other chapter — 
was in vogue, but was, of course, neither satisfactory nor reliable. 
Other Greek-letter fraternities were establishing and publishing 
official journals and the early Congresses earnestly considered the 
publication of a magazine. This project was, however, like many 
others, doomed to an interminable Congressional debate before 
actuality emerged from reflection, consideration, delays and 
debates. Meanwhile, the demand for a printed journal grew 
apace and the active chapters, during 1879, under the leadership 
of Virginia Delta, petitioned the Worthy Grand Chief to call a 
special meeting of the Congress to provide for the immediate 
establishment of a magazine. 

But the special meeting was rendered unnecessary by the 
action of the High Council. That body had been created by the 
constitution adopted in 1878, and was vested with all the powers 
of Congress during the interim between the sessions of that body. 
Joseph R. Anderson, even then a veteran in the service of the fra- 
ternity, was its chairman, and at a meeting held in the autumn of 
1880 it was resolved that the High Council should immediately 
publish a regular quarterly journal. Anderson was authorized and 
directed to supervise the publication of the first number. 

The first number appeared shortly thereafter, and was 
dated December, 1880. It contained sixty pages — an unusually 
large number of pages for those pioneer days of Greek-letter 
fraternity journalism. It contained a "Greeting" and "An 


Address to the Fraternity," by Joseph R. Anderson; "The 
Fraternity Idea," by James B. Green; "The Impolicy of the 
Opposition of College Officials to Secret Fraternities," by Otis A. 
Glazebrcok; "Our Ritual," by Bishop C. T. Ouintard, and the 
features that have since become permanent fixtures; viz., chapter 
letters (from six of the fourteen chapters), personal notes, edi- 
torials, obituaries, etc. The subscription price was fixed at $i.oo 
per year, which was soon advanced to $1.50. 

The Palm was accorded a most enthusiastic reception. The 
Macon Congress, which convened a few days after the issuance of 
the first number, ratified the action of the High Council, adopted 
the Palm as the official journal of the fraternity and confided its 
management and control to the High Council. It is to be noted 
that the High Council still retains exclusive control of the Palm; 
neither Congress nor the grand officers have any jurisdiction or 
power concerning it. 

Although not re-elected to the office of Chairman of the High 
Council by the Macon Congress, Anderson continued to edit the 
journal until the succeeding Congress. Then, desiring to devote 
his entire time to the office cf Worthy Grand Keeper of Annals, he 
declined to serve for another term. Founder Otis A. Glazebrook, 
then the Chairman of the High Council, assumed editorial super- 
vision and was followed by Charles W. Baker and Herbert N. 
Felkel. In 1889 Walter T. Daniel, the first and only General 
Secretary of the fraternity, edited and published the Palm as a 
part of the duties of his office. Daniel was one of the leading and 
the most ardent promoters of the Pan-Hellenic idea — an impossible 
and impractical notion then agitating the bosoms of many well- 
meaning Greeks — and he devoted more space to its plans and 
ambitions than to the fraternity's interests. In fact, he called 
the Palm "the Pan-Hellenic" magazine. Alpha Tau Omega 
had little sympathy with the visions of the amalgamators and the 
Richmond Congress disapproved the actions of its editor. Where- 
upon, Daniel resigned and was succeeded by Founder Otis A. 
Glazebrook. Glazebrook issued two volumes and was suc- 
ceeded by Louis C. Ehle, who was appointed after the adjourn- 
ment of the Nashville Congress of 1892. Ehle published eight 
volumes, having retained the office longer than any other incum- 


bent. His retirement was due to increased professional labors, 
and since then (1901) the position has been successively filled by 
N. Wiley Thomas, Paul T. Cherrington, D. Stanley Briggs, 
Hendree P. Simpson and Claude T. Reno. A table herewith 
presented succintly states the history of the Palm. 

The journal has generally received the financial support of 
the fraternity. The volumes issued by Anderson produced a 
small profit for the fraternity. Since 1884 the active members of 
the fraternity have been required to subscribe to and pay for the 
journal, and during certain periods many alumni have voluntarily 
subscribed. For many years, however, the general fraternity 
was compelled to contribute large sums for the payment of the 
deficits annually created by the publication. Latterly, the High 
Council demanded that the Palm be made self supporting and this 
was accomplished in 1906. Since that date the journal has not 
only fully sustained itself, but has annually paid large sums into 
the exchequer as profits earned for the fraternity by the manage- 
ment. As a literary production, the Palm has generally been 
regarded as one cf the leaders. For many years, competent 
authorities conceded it to be the most representative Greek jour- 
nal. Within the fraternity it has always been regarded as the 
foremost associate enterprise. 

The Palm, Junior. At the Birmingham Congress of 1906 
Claude T. Reno, assisted by a number of members, issued, daily, 
a four-page (four columns to the page) newspaper, called the 
Palm, Junior. It was devoted to the news of the gathering and 
was cordially welcomed by the delegates and visitors. At the 
Atlanta Congress of 1910 the Palm, Junior, was published under 
the same direction. 




Besides publishing the Palm, the fraternity has published, 
for general circulation, several catalogues or registers, two song 
books, various addresses and orations and miscellaneous pub- 

In addition, there have been numerous editions of the con- 
stitutions, the laws, the secret work, printed circular letters, pro- 
ceedings and minutes of Congress, etc., none of which require 
further mention. The several chapters and alumni associations 
have issued directories and histories, but we can not attempt to 
notice them here. 


About the time of the first meeting of Congress there arose a 
general demand for a catalogue or register of the initiates of the 
fraternity. The minutes of the early meetings of Congress contain 
records of numerous actions, motions and resolutions upon the 
subject. Several officers and committees, at various times, 
were charged with the duty of collecting the necessary material 
for the publication of an authoritative and revised list of mem- 
bers. But they never reported anything tangible and the 
fraternity never secured a catalogue until 1878. 

First Catalogue. The first catalogue was projected and com- 
menced soon after the meeting of the first Congress. At that 
Congress, Joseph R. Anderson (Virginia Alpha) was elected to 
the office of Junior Grand Master, the second office, and, without 
authority or suggestion of Congress and entirely independent of it, 
he commenced collecting data for a register. He wrote to the 
chapters then in existence and secured their lists of members. 
The members of the defunct chapters were secured only by re- 
peated and widespread correspondence. This work was con- 


tinued from time to time, until 1877, when, having become the 
chairman of the catalogue committee, appointed by Congress, 
he printed and distributed a preliminary catalogue. This was a 
small paper-bound volume and was distributed gratis to the 
entire membership, as far as then known, with the request that 
the recipient carefully read the same and make such cor- 
rections, alterations and additions as his knowledge enabled 
him to make and return the volume to Anderson. A large 
number of corrections were received and the corrected lists, duly 
annotated and revised by W. B. Nauts, Tennessee Omega, who 
succeeded Anderson in the office of Worthy Grand Keeper of 
Annals, were published in the Palm (Volume VIII, 1888). In 
the meantime, the preliminary catalogue had been presented to 
the Baltimore Congress of 1878 and by it received with great 
enthusiasm. Anderson's achievement can be appreciated only 
by men who have an intimate knowledge of the early days of the 
fraternity and the careless manner by which the records of the 
several chapters were kept. His work has furnished the basis 
for all succeeding catalogues, no one having thought it necessary 
or proper to go beyond the date to which he had brought our 

The book contained about 530 names, collected under their 
respective chapters and arranged according to date of initiation 
The address of the member was stated, when known. 

Second Catalogue. Years elapsed before another catalogue 
was issued and, in the interval, a strong demand was made for a 
thorough revision of Anderson's work, followed by the usual 
fruitless Congressional enactments. It is not now necessary to 
review the many legislative actions of the Congress. It is suffi- 
cient to say that the work was finally undertaken by Dr. Larkin 
W. Glazebrook (a son of Founder Glazebrook) shortly after his 
election to the office of Worthy Grand Chief at Washington, in 
1894. At the Cleveland Congress of 1896 he reported that the 
book was ready for the printer, and on February 15, 1897, the 
edition was distributed to the subscribers. 

The book was bound in blue cloth, stamped, in gold, on the 
back, "Alpha Tan Omega Catalogue, 1897," and on the side, the 
fraternity's badge. Its 360 pages were divided into three parts ; 


first, a list of the members arranged according to chapters; second, 
a geographical index; third, an alphabetical index. The chapters 
were arranged according to the dates of installation, except that 
the community chapter lists were placed in the rear of the volume. 
Besides the name of the member, his academic degrees, his place 
of residence at the time of his initiation, the year of his initiation, 
brief data concerning his career in and out of college, his positions 
within the fraternity and his latest address and occupation were 
published. The volume also contained a preface, a brief historical 
sketch of the fraternity, a list of the officers of the fraternity at 
the date of publication, a list of the chapters, active and defunct, 
a list of the alumni associations, a list showing the number of 
Alpha Taus pursuing the various professions and half-tone 
illustrations of the Founders, the house in which the fraternity 
was founded and the Virginia Military Institute. It was a most 
praiseworthy performance of a most difficult task and received 
a generous welcome. The book contained 4,134 names. 

Third Catalogue. On March i, 1903, Larkin W. Glazebrook, 
then the Worthy Grand Keeper of Annals, published another 
catalogue. This was authorized by the Chicago Congress of 1902. 
The book was bound in light blue cloth, with yellow sheepskin 
back, and was stamped, in black, on the back, "Official Register, 
Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity, 1903," and, on the side, in gold, 
the fraternity's badge upon a heraldic shield. It contained 592 
pages and was arranged similar to the edition of 1897, except 
that the community chapters were listed along with the collegiate 
chapters and in the order of their installation. An engraving of 
the badge formed the frontispiece, which was followed by a pref- 
ace, an excellent historical sketch of the fraternity, an essay by 
Founder Glazebrook upon the fraternity's early days, an address 
delivered by him in 1866 to the Alpha and Beta chapters, a brief 
history of the Palm, "Old Landmarks," a historical essay by H. 
H. Dinwiddle (Virginia Alpha) ; "Alpha Tau Omega from 1880 to 
1884," a review of the "Northern invasion," by Dr. N. Wiley 
Thomas (Pennsylvania Tau) ; a list of officers and the chapter roll. 
The volume contained approximately 5,800 names. 

Fourth Catalogue. Besides publishing catalogues. Dr. Larkin 
W. Glazebrook, Worthy Grand Keeper of Annals, has perfected 


a system of keeping annals that is at once a surprise and the 
admiration of all who inspect it. So complete and accurate is his 
work that a comparatively correct list of the entire membership 
can be published within a relatively short space of time. This 
was demonstrated by the publication of the Pocket Directory. 
On February 17, 1907, the High Council authorized the publi- 
cation and two months later the book was in the mails. In the 
interval, a circular letter was addressed to each member, inquiring 
for his latest address. The book was a small volume, bound in 
red, flexible leather, and contains 241 pages of very thin paper. 
The book was divided into a geographical and an alphabetical 
list. Under the former, the name, occupation and street address 
of the member are stated; in the latt'er, a reference to the page 
where the name can be found in the geographical list. Signs are 
used to designate addresses known to be incorrect and those 
presumably correct. The total number of names included was 
7.5 1 3> of which 555 were deceased. 

Fifth Catalogue. The Atlanta Congress of 1910 directed the 
publication of a revised edition of the pocket directory of 1907- 
On May i, 191 1, the directory was issued. In the meantime 
every member of the fraternity had been requested to furnish 
his correct address, and of the addresses contained in the volume 
more than ninety-five per cent, are correct. The book is a small 
volume (6 inches long by 4 inches wide), is bound in blue morocco, 
with side stamped, in gold, of the recently adopted coat-of-arms 
of the fraternity. Within, 333 pages of the thinnest paper 
known to the printer's trade, state the names and addresses of 
approximately 9,450 members. The book contains a list of the 
general officers of the fraternity, roster of defunct chapters, 
directory of active chapters and alumni associations, geographical 
list of members, officers of United States Army, etc., who have 
no permanent address, list of deceased members with date of 
<^ecease, "lost list" (i. e., list of members whose correct addresses 
are not known to a certainty) and an alphabetical index of names. 
In the short time since the publication, the book has become 
immensely popular and its sale is likely to exceed that of the 
1907 edition. 

Province Catalogues. The New York Congress of 1904 


directed the Province Chiefs to publish annually the revised and 
corrected lists of members of the several chapters in their respec- 
tive jurisdictions. During 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 a 
number of province directories were published, but a list of them 
is not now available. The law was repealed in 1908. 

Miscellaneous Directories. At various times chapters and 
alumni associations have published more or less elaborate cata- 
logues of their members. A complete list is not available. 

Song Books. 

First Edition. As early as 1882, a song book was demanded, 
and after futile legislative action of divers sorts, the Congress 
empowered Pennsylvania Alpha Upsilon chapter, at Gettysburg, 
to compile and publish a suitable book. That chapter, under 
the aggressive leadership of Charles W. Baker, issued a song 
book in 1886. The book was. small in size, six by eight inches, 
bound in blue cloth, stamped, in gold, on side, "A T Q Songs." 
Its no pages contained 68 songs, most of them composed by 
Baker. It was extensively circulated and was in general use by 
the older chapters up to the publication of the new edition. 

Second Edition. After the 1886 edition was exhausted 
many of the newer chapters did not have access to a collection of 
Alpha Tau Omega music and songs. In 1894 Congress recom- 
mended the compilation and publication of a new book. Congress 
appointed several sets of committees, but the book did not appear 
until a few days prior to the Birmingham Congress cf 1906. The 
editorial committee consisted of Walter B. Hare (Georgia Alpha 
Theta), George R. Seikel (New York Alpha Lambda), Louis C. 
Khle (New York Beta Theta), Wilson T. Moog (New York Alpha 
Omicron), Henry A. Lyon (New York Beta Theta). The "copy" 
collected by the committee was prepared for the printer by Dr. 
J. T. Rugh (Michigan Alpha Mu) and the sale cf the volumes was 
committed to Hamilton C. Connor (Pennsylvania Tau). The 
book was seven by ten inches in size, bound in light blue cloth, 
with g(;ld side stamp. Seventy compositions, including songs, 
marches, waltzes, solos, etc., are included in the 78 pages. Many 
of the songs included in the first edition were republished in this 
edition and materially added to its popularity. 



The fraternity's officially recognized insignia consists of a 
badge, pledge button, an alumni button, a banner, a coat-of-arms, 
flower and colors. 

In this connection the fraternity cheer, whistle and serenade 
will be set forth. 

It will be understood, of course, that the various insignia, 
together with monograms composed of the letters A T Q, are 
extensively used on articles of jewelry, etc. However, the use 
of the badge on articles of jewelry, either cf use or ornamentation, 
is now prohibited. 


The badge is in the form of a Maltese Cross. It consists of a 
circular center field and four arms. The center and the arms are 
black enamel and the inscriptions or devices therein are gold. 
In the center field are inscribed, beginning at the top of the field, 
a crescent, three stars, the Greek letter "T" and two clasped 
hands. Upon the vertical arms are the Greek letters "A" and 
"Q" and upon the horizontal arms are the letters "Q" and "A." 
On the back of the badge are placed, in the center, the name of 
the owner, his chapter and the year of his initiation. On the 
horizontal arms are the Greek letters "E" and "11" and on the 
vertical arms "H" and "E." ■ I 

When desired a pin containing the Greek letter or letters 
representing the name of the owner's chapter may be attached 
to the badge with a gold chain. 

The badge was devised by the Founders and has never been 
altered. The fraternity has never adopted any particular size 
or design and jeweled or unjeweled, large or small, are alike 
recognized. Badges may be made and sold only by authorized 


jewelers, and by them only upon orders or requisitions made in 
accordance with the laws of Congress. 

PivBDGE Button. 

The pledge button is a circular button, three-eighths of an 
inch in diameter, having a field of white enamel, in which is 
inscribed, in gold, a crescent above three stars. 

The button is worn by men during the interval between the 
dates of pledging and initiation. It was first adopted by the 
Cleveland Congress of 1896. 

The A1.UMN1 Button. 

The Nashville Congress of 1892 adopted a badge designed 
and intended to be a distinctive badge for the alumni. In form, 
shape and design it was similar to the badge of the fraternity, 
except that it was made of oxidized silver. It seems never to 
have been used to any extent by the alumni, and has been totally 
ignored by the succeeding enactments of Congress prescribing 
and regulating the insignia. 


The secret work describes the banner — until very recently 
called a coat-of-arms — and we may not explain it here, except 
that in form it is triangular, upon which is superimposed a Maltese 
Cross. In the center and in each arm are pictures illustrating 
the esoteric teachings of the fraternity. 

The first painting of the banner was made by Richard N. 
Brooke (Alpha) and adopted by the Nashville Congress of 1872. 


The fraternity very recently has adopted a coat-of-arms. 
Formerly a device, which was more properly called a banner, was 
generally regarded as the fraternity's coat-of-arms. The new 
coat-of-arms is drawn in strict conformity with all the laws and 
usages of heraldry. 

The coat-of-arms while legally adopted has not been embla- 
zoned by law; that is to say, that Congress has not enacted into 


law a description cf the coat-cf-arms in the technical language of 
the art of heraldry. This will doubtless be done at the next 
meeting of the Congress. 

The compiler can not undertake to describe the armis in the 
technical language cf the art, but the following will explain the 
device to these who do net insist upon the use cf the term cf 
heraldry : 

The coat-of-arms consists of three pieces or devices, a crest, 
shield and motto. The shield, of the Norman type, is so divided 
as to contain a blue Tau cross laid upon a yellow base. Upon the 
bar of the cross are three yellow stars. The shield is embellished 
with scroll designs flowing down on both sides. The crest is a 
castle, the significance of which is well known to students of our 
secret work. The motto is "Pi Epsilon Pi." 

The coat-of-arms has been copyrighted and may not be used 
for any purpose without the permission of the Worthy Grand 


The white tea rose is recognized as the fraternity's flower. 
It was first adopted by the Nashville Congress of 1892. 


The Nashville Congress of 1892 adopted sky blue and old 
gold as the colors of the fraternity. Prior to that time four 
colors were generally used. 


The Birmingham Congress of 1906 adopted the following 
cheer : 

Ruh! Rah! Rega! 
Alpha Tau Omega ! 
Hip Hurrah! Hip Hurrah! 
Three Cheers for Alpha Tau ! 
Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! 
Prior to 1906 another cheer was in general use and had been 
officially recognized. 







>l > g - 




jiTT} I » .r J ^ 




i 4fVt^rrrrjp- , . | P 


'f i ' rr ' o \ \, r i i rci " r 

Oi yi'-eis ajoe-Tffs 'Or vi-eis a/>-e-r/^s -- — 

The whistle was adopted by the Cleveland Congress of 1896 
and the serenade by the Boston Congress of 1 900. 



(Compiled by H. L. Blankenburg.) 

A fraternity of high principles and good moral tone will have 
its ideals exemplified in the alumni which its chapters send out 
into the world. The alumni show by their lives what kind of a 
fraternity with w^hich they are connected. To have men of 
political, ecclesiastical or educational prominence is not alone 
a true criterion of a fraternity's worth because the percentage of 
men who attain great prominence is very small. It is the general 
character of the whole body of alumni that represents the true 
standard of that fraternity. 

The alumni of Alpha Tau Omega left college strengthened by 
her teachings and imbued with her ideals. Her members are 
everywhere, and each in his community shows by his life the 
noble principles which she teaches. 

In looking over the early initiates one is astounded by the 
wonderful success which they have met with in life. There are 
United States judges, College presidents, members of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, authors and engineers. Among 
the younger men we have had two elected to the United States 
Senate at the age of 31 and one of them was the youngest man 
ever elected to that body. Alpha Tau's strength is in her young 
men. The greater number of her members are not yet middle 
aged and each is doing a creditable share of the world's work. 
When the younger generation succeeds the older, as it inevitably 
must, Alpha Tau will look with pride at the success of her 
children. Her honor roll will increase from year to year. 

An effort has been made to gather together a list of the 
members who have achieved success. Herein is presented first, 
the name of the alumnus ; second, the nam.e of the chapter wherein 
he was initiated; third, the name of the college with which the 


chapter is connected; and fourth, the achievements for which 
the alumnus is worthy of distinction. 

Hugh S. Thompson, South Carolina A <I>, South Carolina 
College; Governor, South Carolina; Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury, under President Cleveland; deceased. 

Duncan C. Heyward, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity; Governor, South Carolina (1903-07); President, Standard 
Warehouse Co. and Columbia Savings and Trust Co. 

William J. Samford, Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; Governor, Alabama (1900-01); member, U. S. House 
of Representatives (1879-81); Alabama State Senate (1884-86); 
President (1886); deceased (1901). 

Carmi Thompson, Ohio B Q, Ohio State University ; Assistant 
Secretary of the Department of the Interior (191 1 — ); Secretary 
of State of Ohio (i 906-11). 

Brskine M. Ross, Virginia A, Virginia Military Academy; 
associate founder of the fraternity ; United States Circuit Judge, 
Ninth District; Justice, Supreme Court of California (1879-86). 

Page Morris, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; Judge, 
U. S. District Court of Minnesota; member, U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives (1897- 1 903). 

John Paul, Virginia V (Community Chapter) ; Judge, U. S. 
District Court of Western Virginia; member, U. S. House of 
Representatives (1881-85); deceased . 

Clifton R. Breckenridge, Virginia B, Washington and Lee 
University; U. S. Ambassador to Russia (1894-97) ; member, U. S. 
House of Representatives (1883-95); President, Arkansas Valley 
Trust Co., Fort Smith, Ark. 

F. McL. Simmons, North Carolina S, Trinity College; U. S. 
Senator, North Carolina (1901-13); member, U. S. House of 
Representatives (1887-89). 

Thomas G. Hayes, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives; U. S. District Attorney 
for Maryland; Mayor, Baltimore, Md. (i 899-1 903). 

William H. Milton, Jr., Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; U. S. Senator, Florida. 

Robert L. Owen, Virginia B, Washington and Lee University; 
U. S. Senator, Oklahoma (1907-13). 


William James Bryan, Georgia A 0, Emory College; U. S. 
Senator, Florida; the youngest man ever sent to the Senate, 
excepting Henry Clay; died in office. 

Luke Lea, Tennessee Q, University of the South; U. S. 
Senator, Tennessee (1911-17). 

Nathan P. Bryan, Georgia A 0, Emory College; U. S. Senator, 
Florida (191 1 -17). 

Robert Lee Williams, Alabama B B, Southern University; 
Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Oklahoma. 

Beverly D. Evans, Georgia A Z, Mercer University; Chief 
Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia. 

Samuel C. Atkinson, Georgia A B, University of Georgia; 
Associate Justice, Supreme Court of Georgia. 

Thomas C. McClellan, Alabama B A, University of Alabama; 
Associate Justice, Supreme Court of Alabama. 

Irving Bacheller, New York A 0, St. Lawrence University; 
founder, Bacheller Newspaper Syndicate; author, "Eben Holden," 
"D'ri and I," "The Hand Made Gentleman," "Keeping Up 
with Lizzie," etc. 

Walter H. Page, North Carolina E, Trinity College; founder 
and editor, The World's Work; compiler, Harper's Encyclopedia; 
member of firm, Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Edward W. Pou, North Carolina A A, University of North 
Carolina; member, U. S. House of Representatives (i 901 -13). 

Daniel F. Lafean, Pennsylvania A Y, Gettysburg College; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1903-13). 

H. Garland Dupre, Louisiana B E, Tulane University; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1911-13). 

Andrew B. Price, Tennessee A, Cumberland University; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1889-95); deceased. 

Theodore S. Wilkinson, Virginia B, Washington and Lee 
University; member, U. S. House of Representatives (1887-91). 

Rufus K. Polk, Pennsylvania A P, Lehigh University; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (i 899-1 903); deceased. 

Joseph H. Acklen, Tennessee A, Cumberland University; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1877-81). 

J. H. Kimball, Kentucky M, Kentucky Military Institute; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives; deceased. 


James Phelan, Kentucky M, Kentucky Military Institute; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1887-91); author; 

James W. Marshall, Virginia V (Community Chapter) ; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1893-95). 

Zachary Taylor, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
member, U. S. House of Representatives (1885-87). 

Charles Todd Quintard, Tennessee Q, University of the 
South; P. E. Bishop of Tennessee (1865-98); re-established the 
University of the South and was its first president (vice-chan- 
cellor) ; deceased. 

Thomas F. Gailor, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
P. E. Bishop of Tennessee (1898 — ); Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of the South; author. 

Theodore Du Bose Bratton, Tennessee Q, University of the 
South; P. E. Bishop of Mississippi. 

John H. Vincent, Ohio B H, Ohio Wesleyan University; 
Bishop of the M. E. Church; author and lecturer. 

John W. Hamilton, Ohio A N, Mt. Union College; Bishop of 
the M. E. Church; editor and author. 

Benjamin Lawton Wiggins, Tennessee Q, University of the 
South; Vice-Chancellor (President) of the University of the 
South; deceased. 

Harrison Randolph, Virginia A, University of Virginia; 
President, College of Charleston since 1897. 

George M. Savage, Tennessee I, Union University; President, 
Union University. 

H. H. Dinwiddie, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
President, Texas A. & M. College; author; deceased (1887). 

John Garland James, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
President, Texas Military Institute; President, Texas A. & M. 
College; author, "Southern Selections." 

Eugene C. Branson, North Carolina S, Trinity College; 
President, Georgia State Normal School; editor and author. 

Marvin M. Parks, Georgia A 0, Emory College; President, 
Georgia Normal and Industrial College. 

Willis E. Parsons, Michigan B O, Albion College; President, 
Parson's College (la.). 


Edward Jay Kirbye, Michigan B K, Hillsdale College; 
President, Drury College (Mo.) ; President, Atlanta Theological 
Seminary; author, "Puritanism in the South." 

Charles M. Puckette, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
President, West Georgia A. & M. College. 

Harry M. Crooks, Ohio B M, Wooster University; President, 
Albany College (Ore.). 

Samuel K. Chandler, Tennessee A T, Southwestern Pres- 
byterian University; President, Daniel Baker College (Tex.). 

Thomas Arkle Clark, Illinois P Z, University of Illinois; 
Dean, Undergraduates, University of Illinois ; editor and author 
of textbooks. 

W. F. M. Goss, Illinois P Z, University of Illinois; Dean, 
College of Engineering, University of Illinois; associate editor. 
Railroad Gazette; author of many scientific papers. 

Eugene E. Haskell, New York B 0, Cornell University; 
Director, College of Civil Engineering, Cornell University. 

Elias P. Lyon, Michigan B K, Hillsdale College; Dean, 
Medical Department, St. Louis University. 

William K. Hatt, New York B 0, Cornell University; Direc- 
tor, College of Civil Engineering, Purdue University; Consulting 
Engineer, U. S. Forest Service. 

Frank G. Wren, Massachusetts P B, Tufts College; Dean, 
Faculty of Arts and Sciences and of Faculty of College of Letters, 
Tufts College. 

Charles W. Kollock, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
Dean, Charleston Medical College; Mayor pro tern, Charleston, 
S. C. (1901); Lieutenant-Colonel, First Regiment, South Carolina 

William W. Carson, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity; Professor, Civil Engineering, University of Tennessee; 
consulting engineer. 

Joseph H. Pratt, North Carolina A A, University of North 
Carolina; Professor of Geology, University of North Carolina; 
Special Expert in Minerology of U. S. Geodetic and Coast Survey. 

Mazyck P. Ravenel, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
Professor of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin; especially 
noted for his work on tuberculosis and rabies. 


John F. Seeley, Michigan B K, Hillsdale College; Dean, 
Musical Department, Willamette College (Ore.). 

Henry D. Campbell, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity; Dean, Academic College, Washington and Lee University. 

William D. Pence, Wisconsin T T, University of Wisconsin; 
Professor of Railway Engineering, University of Wisconsin; 
Chief Engineer of Wisconsin Rate Commission. 

Thomas H. Dickinson, Wisconsin V T, University of Wiscon- 
sin; Professor of English, University of Wisconsin; editor of many 
old English plays and author of several original ones. 

Ulrich B. Phillips, Georgia A B, University of Georgia; 
Professor of History, University of Michigan; author of several 
histories of the Southern States. 

Sterling Ruffin, North Carolina A A, University of North 
Carolina ; Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine, Columbian 
University; member. Board of U. S. Pension Examiners. 

B. Smith Hopkins, Michigan B 0, Albion College; Professor, 
Johns Hopkins University. 

George B. McElroy, Michigan A M, Adrian College; Professor 
of Mathematics, Adrian College; rated as the fifth best mathe- 
matician in the world; deceased. 

James E. Creighton, New York B 0, Cornell University; 
Professor of Philosophy and Ethics, Cornell University; author 
of books and papers on philosophical subjects. 

William B. Nauts, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
Professor of Latin, University of the South. 

Frederick M. Page, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
Professor of Modern Languages, University of Pennsylvania; 

Frederick Tupper, Jr., South Carolina B S, College of Charles- 
ton; Professor of English, University of Vermont. 

Blake B. Nicholson, North Carolina' S, Trinity College; 
Professor of Political Science, Trinity College; member. State 

John C. Fish, New York B 0, Cornell University; Professor 
of Civil Engineering, Leland Stanford University. 

Stewart W. Young, New York B 0, Cornell University; 
Professor of Chemistry, Leland Stanford University. 


Nathan A. Weston, Illinois F Z, University of Illinois; Pro- 
fessor of Political Science, University of Illinois. 

Robert D. Ford, New York A 0, St. Lawrence University; 
Professor of Mathematics, St. Lawrence University. 

George E. Coghill, Rhode Island P A, Brown University; 
Professor of Biology, University of the Pacific. 

Edward K. Turner, Alabama B B, Southern University; 
Professor of Ancient Languages, Southern University. 

William H. Cheatham, Kentucky M, Kentucky Military 
Institute; Professor of ^ledicine, University of Louisville. 

Frederic P. Collette, Ohio A W, Wittenberg College; Professor 
of Romance Languages, Carnegie Institute. 

Percy Ash, Pennsylvania T, University of Pennsylvania; 
Professor of Architecture, University of Michigan. 

William George Bennett, Virginia A, Virginia Military 
Institute; Judge, Circuit Court of West Virginia. 

William N. Portlock, Virginia P, Bethel Academy; Judge, 
First Circuit Court of Virginia. 

James K. Norton, Virginia A, University of Virginia; Judge, 
Corporation Court of Virginia. 

George Watts ^Morris, Virginia A, University of Virginia; 
Judge, Corporation Court of Virginia. 

Samuel Houston Letcher, Virginia ^lilitary Institute; Judge, 
Eighteenth Circuit Court of Virginia. 

John E. Mason, Virginia P, Bethel Academy ; Judge, Fifteenth 
Circuit Court of Virginia. 

W. S. Anderson, Tennessee A, Cumberland University; 
Judge, Circuit Court of Alabama. 

Warren S. Reese, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
Judge, Circuit Court of Alabama. 

Walter W. Pearson, Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; Judge, Superior Court of Alabama. 

Joseph W. Bennett, Georgia A B, University of Georgia; 
Judge, Superior Court of Georgia. 

George I. Watson, North Carolina Z, Trinity College; Judge, 
Probate Court of North Carolina. 

Benjamin F. Long, North Carolina Z, Trinity College; 
Judge, Superior Court of North Carolina. 


John W. Childress, Tennessee I, Union University; Judge, 
Circuit Court of Tennessee; President and Business Manager, 
Nashville American; deceased. 

Frederick N. Heiskell, Virginia B, Washington and Lee 
University; Judge, Court of Chancery of Tennessee. 

Willis R. Wallace, Virginia A, University of Virginia; Judge, 
Circuit Court of Texas ; deceased. 

Elias E. Roberts, Ohio A N, Mt. Union College; Judge, 
Court of Common Pleas of Ohio. 

Edwin L. Davis, Tennessee B IT, Vanderbilt University; 
Judge, Seventh Circuit Court of Tennessee. 

Roland W. Baggott, Ohio B Q, Ohio State University; Judge, 
Probate Court of Ohio. 

David F. Dillon, Massachusetts F B, Tufts College; Judge, 
District Court of Massachusetts. 

Walter H. North, Michigan B K, Hillsdale College; Judge, 
Circuit Court of Michigan. 

Henry C. Riley, Kentucky M, Kentucky Military Institute; 
Judge, Circuit Court of Missouri. 

LeRoy Scott, Michigan A M, Adrian College; magazine 
editor; author, "The Walking Delegate," "To Him That Hath," 
"The Shears of Destiny," etc. 

Waddy Thompson, South Carolina A <I>, South Carolina 
College; author, "History of the United States"; publisher. 

Frank Andrews Fall, Michigan B 0, Albion College; author, 
"Blazed Trails," "Developing a Positive," etc.; Bursar of New 
York University. 

Nerval Richardson, Tennessee A T, Southwestern Presby- 
terian University; author, "The Heart of Hope," "The Lead of 
Honour" and numerous short stories. 

Harry E. Harman, Pennsylvania A Y, Gettysburg College; 
author, "Living Writers of the South," etc. ; editor and publisher 
of various trade journals ; author of numerous volumes of poetry. 

Charles E. Ziegler, Pennsylvania A P, Lehigh University; 
author, "Pennsylvania German Poems." 

Thomas T. Eaton, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity; Baptist clergyman; editor. Western Recorder and Southern 
Baptist Pulpit; author. 





Hall or Hotel. 


1870— July 5.* 

Lexington, Va. 


1872— July 25. t 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Senate Chamber. 


1874— July 16. 

Lexington Ky. 

First Presbyterian Church. 


1876— July 12. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

Masonic Hall. 


1877— Oct. 31. 

Richmond, Va. 

Washington Hall. 


1878— Dec. 27. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Old Bible House 


1880— Dec. 29. 

Macon, Ga. 



1882— Dec. 27. 

Washington, D. C. 

Ebbitt House. 


1884— Dec. 31. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Continental Hotel, 


1886— Dec. 29. t 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Kimball House. 


1888— Dec. 26. 

Springfield, O. 

Arcade Hotel. 


1890— Dec. 26. 

Richmond, Va. 

E~>^change Hotel. 


1892— Dec. 28. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Senate Chamber. 


1894— Dec. 26. 

WaFhington, D. C. 

Ebbitt House. 


1896— Dec. 26. 

Cleveland. O. 

Chamber of Commerce, 


1898— Dec. 28. 

New Orleans, La. 

New St Charles Hotel. 


1900— Dec. 26. 

Boston, Mass. 

Brunswick Hotel. 


1902— Dec. 31. 

Chicago, 111. 

Auditorixim Hotel. 


1904— Dec. 28. 

New York, N. Y. 

Hotel Astor. 


1906— Dec. 26. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

Hillman Hotel. 


1903— Dec. 30. 

Pittscurgh, Pa. 

Hotel Schenley. 


1910— Dec. 30. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Hotel Piedmont. 

*The date of the opening session is given. Many of the Congresses continued for 
three or four days. 

fA called or special meeting, the first Congress having resolved that the second Con- 
gress should meet in Lexington, Ky., on the second Monday of July, 1874. 

jCharleston, S. C, had been selected as the place for the tenth Congress, but the 
earthquake of August 31, 1886, required a change to Atlanta, 


No. 1 Year 

Sr. Grand Master. 

Jr. Grand Master. 

Sr. Grand Scribe. 

Jr. Grand Scribe, 

W. Gr. Scribe. 



High Council. 



^V. G. BcnnettTo.). 

F. A. Berlin (a). 

F. Roane (a). 

R. N, Brooke (n). 



T. G. Hayes. 

J. R. Anderson. 

W. G. Bennett. 

F. A. Berlin, 



A. F. Whitman. 

R. W. Jones. 

W. G. Bennitt. 

F. A. Berlin. 

T. T. Eaton. 



R. W. Jones. 

J. S. Van Meter. 

J. H. Jamison, 

C. S. Hart. 

G. B. Everett. 
T. T. Eaton. 

Se. Grand Chief. 

ASST. Sr. Gr. C. ^ 

JR. Grand Chief. 

HIGH Chancellor. 

Vice H. Chan. 


J. R. Anderson. 

T. E. Williams. 

B. F. Long. 

wrn. Dudley." 

E. I, Renick. 



M. D. Humes. 

W. H. Page. 

B. F. Lone. 

F. H. McGuirc. 

C, S, Hart. 

Syl. Stokes. 

J. H. Acklin. 
J. B. Green. 

Worthy Gr. Chief. 

W. Ge. Chaplain. 

W. G. K. OF Ex. 

W. G. K. OF An. 

W. H. Chan. 


T. G. Hayes. 

O. A. Glazebrook. 

M. D. Humes (/), 

J. R. Anderson. 

S. G. Brent, 

J. R. Anderson, 0. A. Glazebrook, F. McGuire, T. T. Eaton, J. B. Green {k). 

O. A. Glazebrook, Syl. Stokes. M. N. Dubosc (m), T. T. Eaton (i), A. I. Branhan. 



T. G. Hayes. 

C. T. Quintard. 

M. D. Humes. 

J. R. Anderson. 

J. B. Green. 

C. M. Puckette. 

J. W. Childress. 

W. P. Orr. 



T. G. Hayes. 

C. T. Quintard. 

M. D. Humes. 

J. R. Anderson. 

B. F. Long. 

W. T. Daniel. 

W. H. Page. 

R. S. Turk. 

O. A. Glazebrook, J. B. Green, N. W. Thomas, Leonard Marburv, M, P. Ravenel. 



N. W. Thomas. 

C. T. Quintard. 

J. R. Anderson (i). 

J- C. Jones. 

T. G. Hayes. 

W. T. Daniel. 

L. L. Smith. 

J. B. Green. 

O. A. Glazebrook, M. D. Humes, J, B. Green, M. P. Ravenel, C. W. Baker. 



E. .1. Shives. 

C. T. Quintard. 

M. L. Home. 

W. E. Nauts. 

W. A. Haygood. 

W. T. Daniel. 

H. L. Wiles. 

R. S. Turk. 

O. A. Glazebrook. J. R. Anderson, N. W. Thomas, C. W. Baker, H. N Felkel 



E. J- Shives (6). 

C. W. Baker. 

T. F. Gaines (c). 

Howard Lamar. 

F. H. McGuire. 

W. T. Daniel. 

H. B. Crosby. 

Rolland Ellis. 

O, A, Glazebrook, E. J. Shives, J. R. Anderson, N. W. Thomas, W. H. Page. 



E. J. Shives. 

T. F. Gailor. 

M. L. Home. 

Howard Lamar. 

J. K, M. Norton. 

W. T. Daniel. 

W. J, Sanford. 

T. B. Williams. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas, J. R. Anderson, J. B. Green. W. B. Nauts. 



E. J. Shives. 

J. H. Vincent. 

Zac. Tolliver. 

H. W. Booth. 

Percy Kinnard. 

L. C. Bradley. 

C. R. Breckenridge. 

J. C. Smith. 

0. A. Glazebrook, J, B. Green, L. C. Ehle, N. W. Thomas, F. Menges. 



L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. H. Vincent. 

Zac. Tolliver. 

J, E, Green ((;). 

E. I, Renick. 

D. A. White. 

A. D Price. 

C. C. Pinckney. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas, J. B. Green, L. C. Ehle, E. J. Shives. 



L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. H. Vincent. 

Zac. Tolliver. 

J. E. Green. 

G. M. Hosack. 

Thos. Ruffin. 

A. E. Ewing. 

A. I. Bachellor. 

E, J, Shives, O, A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas, J. B. Green, D. A. White. 



L. W. Glazebrook. 

T. F. Gailor. 

Zac. Tolliver. 

R- E. L. Saner. 

J. B. Green. 

G, H. Lamar. 

Edw. Lyle. 

L. C. Ehle. 

E. J. Shives, F. A. Tapper, O. A. Glazebrook, W. T. Maginnis, R. A. Waller (h). 



G. H. Lamar. 

P. R. Hickok. 

Zac. Tolliver (/). 

R. E. L. Saner. 

J. n. Green. 

D. A. White. 

C. W. Martyn. 

R. M. Taft. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas, T. G. Hayes, C. T. Cottrell, Irving Bachellor. 



G. H. Lamar. 

J. B. Werner. 

G. D. Ellsworth. 

L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. B. Green. 

G. W. Mitchell. 

R. W. Bingham. 

C. C. Pinckney. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N, W, Thomas, L, C. Ehle, N, F, Merrill, E. P. Lyon. 



C. H. Fenn (rf). 

P. R. Hickok. 

G. D. Ellsworth. 

L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. n. Green. 

G. W. Mitchell (e). 

R. W. Bingham, 

A. S. Hartzell. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas, E. P. Lyon. C. S, Wilson, R. E. I,. Saner. 



E. P. Lyon. 

T. B. Bratton. 

G. D. Ellsworth. 

L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. n. Green. 

C. S. Wilson. 

T. A. Clark. 

A. I. Bachellor. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas. Huch Martin, A. W. McCord, F. G. Wren. 



Paul R. Hickqk. 

T. B. Bratton. 

G. D. Ellsworth. 

L. W. Glazebrook. 

J. B. Green. 

C. S. Wilson. 

G. H. Lamar. 

H. W. Jervey. 

O. A. Glazebrook. N. W. Thomas, M.S. Erdman, T. A. Clark. G. W. Mitchell. 



Jno. N- Van der Vries. 

T. B. Bratton. 

G D. Ellsworth. 

L. W, Glazebrook, 

Shepherd Bryan. 

R. W. Baggott. 

H. E. Harman. 

O. A. Glazebrook, N. W. Thomas. M. S. Erdman, Geo. Maguire, P. R. Hickok. 

.■ithout referi 

. etc. 

A'olcs and Explanations. — No attempt has been made to show minor ofiicer 
performed their duties, or the names of those who served in their places. The 
named ^vas the chairman of ihe High Council. 

(ai, temporary officers. (ft), M. L. Home elected, but declined; Shives then re-elected. (c), Gaines transferred to High Council, vice Shives, elected W. G. C, and Home elected W. G. K. E. (A), resigned April 13, 
190';; E. P. Lyon appointed, (c). O. H. Brown appointed, vice G. W. Mitchell, resigned. {/), Zac. Tolliver died February 25, 1901 : G. D. Ellsworth appointed. (9). Green resigned; T. B. Ruffin appointed. (/(), Waller died, 
G- J. Walter appointed. {/), J. R. Anderson resigned; M. L. Home appointed, 1884. (;"). M. D. Humes resigned, August .^0, 1880; J. B. Green appointed, {k), J. B. Green resigned; Syl. Stokes appointed. (/), T. T. Eaton 
resigned, November 17, 1881; N. W. Thomas appointed, (m), Dubose resigned; C. W. Baker elected. 


ISOS. Ain . Oa . S C. 
1901. A1.1 .Ga. 
icfti. Ala . I la . Ga. 
IW7. Ala-. Fl a,. La-. * 
IS9S. Ill . iDd . MichV 
1901. Cal., Col , Tex . 
Ill . Ind . Mil 

L \V r.liiJobrouIi. 

1S98 1900 
A \V .MiCord 

1S9S. .N C . P.-1 . V;) 

1901. HI . ind . Mich . 


1903. Ill . Ind . Kan . 

1907. Cal .Col .la .Ka 

I9I0. Col . Iowa . Kar 


Mich . Minn . .Neb 
n .Minu .Mo .Neb .Wash 
1 . Minn.. Mo.. Neb. 


K \V. Bingham. 

.\ Y and Ne 
N". Y . Pa 
La.. Tex 
N. C. S- C. \ 

al . Ire , Wasti 

G. W. Mitchell. 

G. W. Mitchell. 

Leo Wise. 

Thos. RuSnT I P. D. Durham. 

E. r Eldredce. T. R Hickok! 

"A. W. McCold. i G. C. Trawicic, 

- iM-nn and IC- 1' 
yon. W- O- C. 
190:' 1906 

-I.N. Van dor Viics. 

IIUL'h Martin. 

W r 

H. C. Conn... 
S. G. Ham... 1 
P- R Ilick..k 

T. F. P.^cndersin. 

W. E. King. C. E. Wilcox. 

C. R. Dick. 

J. N.~Van"dcr Vilcs. : J N. Van der Vrics. 

i ... .\I-. mr,' 
! I C- Connor. 
\\ 1, Wilhoilc. 
r R lli.k..k 

E. W Matshall. 

HuKh Martin. 

E. \V. Marshall. 

R. M. OdclT 

J. W. Hutchison. 

R. W. Baggott. 

I9I0, New Orleans. 

1906. Boston; 1908, Bangor; 1910, 


1906. Allentovni; 1907, Philadel- 
phia; 1910, Al len town. 

1908. Charlotte. 

^902. Columbus; 1903, Tjclawarc: 
1904, Woostcr; 1905, Cleveland; 
1906, Springfield; 1907, Alliance; 
1908, Columbus: 1909, Delaware; 
1 910, Wooster; 1911, Cleveland. 

1909. Nashville. 

Jos. R. And 

O. A. Glazel 

Chas. W. Bjj 

H. N. Felke] 

Walter T. D 

O. A. Glazel 

Louis C. Eh] 

N. Wiley Th 

Paul T. Chei 

D. Stanley I 

Hendree P. S 

Claude T. R^ 




Jos, R. Anderson I Dec, 1880- 

'; pcc.,J^882^ 

b. A. Glazebrook Dec, 1883- 

Dcc, 1886. 

Chas, W, DiikcT T MarT. 1886-" 

Dec, 1886. 

The lliali I ..nil, ,1 .. 7v,.d as edi- 
tors, assufiatu editors and raan- 
I agcrs. 

C. W. llaker, business manager; 
^ Howard Lamar, A. 1. Bachellor, 
p T. D. Bratton, J. F. Wilkes. 

Walter T. Ihi.ii, I 
O. A. Gla^tcbrook . 

N'. Wiley Thomas. . . . 
Paul T. Cherrinston. 
D. Stanley Briuts. . . 
Hcndrcc P. Simpson. 

Claude T, Relln, . , , 

~rS93-Dec, TotiT 

Jan., 1902. : Same as under Ehle. 

Apr.-Dcc, 1902. 

R. W. Taft, J. H. Gannon, J. T. 

j Mon tg omery. ^ 

' J. H. Gannon, J. T. Montgomery. 

1904- J. H. Gannon, J. T. Montgomery, 

Mar., 1905^1 C.T.Reno. _ 

■ 4. 1905. H. P. SimpsonrA. S. Hartzell. F. 
H. Jones, H. L. Ulankenburg, 
P. W. Scott, H. L. Reno, asst. 

Vol. 1 (5 nos.)-326 pp. 
^ol. 2 (4 njs, 1-320 pp. 
Vol. 3—358 pp. 
V^l. 4—324 pp. 
Vul. 5— 3la pp. _ 
Vol. 6—286 pp. 

_ Vol ^10- 
Vol. 1 1 
Vol. 12 
Vol. 13 
Vol. 13, 
Vol. 14 
Vol. 15 
Vol. 16 
Vol 17 
Vol. 18 
Vol. 19 
Vol. 20 
Vol. 21 
Vol. 22 

—162 pp. 

)— 212 pp. 

-233 pp. 

—217 pp. 
No. 1—54 pp. 
Nos. 2. 3. 4. 

-328 pp. 

-339 pp. 

-294 pp. 

-372 pp. 
1—300 pp. 
1—396 pp. 
1—324 pp. 
— 366 pp. 

No. 1 — 92 pp. 

Richmond, Va. 
Richmond. Va. 
Richmond, Va. 
Charlottesville, Va 

Gettysburg, Pa. 

Gettysburg, Pa. 

New YoTk CitvT 
^tlizaheth. N. i'. 

This volume was edited by the editors of 
1S83-86 Baker was called the l-usiness 
manager, hut the volume indicatiS that he 

also performed the work o! eciting. 

Vol. 22, Nos. 2, 3, 4. 
Vol. 23. No. 1^105 pp^ 

Vol. 23, Nos. 2,3, 4. 
Vol. 24, No. 1— 106 pp^ 

Vol. 24, Nos. 2. 3, 4. 
_yol^25. N os. 1, 2, 

Vol. 25, Nos. 3, 4. 

Vol. 26—390 pp. 

Vol. 27—390 PP.+ 

Vol. 28- 570 pp. i 

Vol. 29—574 pp. 

\'ol M 560 pp 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Somerville, N. J, 
"Wasliing'tonTDT C7 ^l724 

Vol. 22 contained 364 i 
Vol. 23 contliine<r3S5 i 
tained 426 i 

Allentown, Pa. 

Vol. 25 


Frederick A. De Rosset, Tennessee Q, University of the South ; 
P. E. clergyman; editor and publisher, Diocese of Springfield. 

James Craik Morris, Tennessee Q, University of the South; 
P. E. clergyman; Dean, Episcopal Cathedral, Memphis, Tenn. 

Joshua W. Caldwell, Tennessee U, University of Tennessee; 
author, "Constitutional History of Tennessee," etc.; lecturer on 
Tennessee Laws and Constitutional History at University of 
Tennessee; deceased. 

William C. Fitts, Tennessee A T, Southwestern Presbyterian 
University; Attorney-General, Alabama (1894-98); District Coun- 
sel for Mobile & Ohio Railroad. 

D. O. Thomas, Tennessee I, Union University; Attorney- 
General, Tennessee ; Judge, Circuit Court; member, State Senate; 

Guy Bailey, Vermont B Z, University of Vermont ; Secretary 
of State, Vermont. 

Anthony D. Sayre, Virginia E, Roanoke College; President, 
Alabama State Senate; Judge, City Court. 

Joel W. Goldsby, Virginia B, Washington and Lee University; 
President, Alabama State Senate. 

Edward I. Renick, Virginia E, Roanoke College; Chief Clerk, 
United States State Department; deceased. 

Walter E. Faison, North Carolina S, Trinity College; Solicitor, 
United States State Department; deceased. 

Edward M. Gadsden, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity; Chief, Money .Order Division, United States Post Office 
Department; introduced the postal money order system in the 
United States; deceased. 

Frank S. Spruill, North Carolina A A, University of North 
Carolina; United States District Attorney for North Carolina; 
Division Counsel for Atlantic Coast Line Railway. 

James H. Malone, Tennessee A, Cumberland University; 
Mayor, Memphis, Tenn. ; President, State Bar Association. 

Robert W. Bingham, North Carolina A H, Bingham's School ; 
Mayor, Louisville, Ky. ; Judge, Chancery Court, Kentucky. 

Alexander Hamilton, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
Vice-President and General Counsel, Atlantic Coast Line Railway; 
bank president. 


William Rick, Pennsylvania A I, Muhlenberg College; 
Mayor, Reading, Pa. 

Alfred J. Yost, Pennsylvania A I, Muhlenberg College; 
Mayor, Allentown, Pa. ; deceased. 

Thomas A. Brewer, Kentucky M, Kentucky Military Insti- 
tute; Mayor, Texarkana, Ark. 

Edward N. Brown, Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; President, National Railways of Mexico, who received 
$100,000 a year. 

James H. Reid, Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute; Chief Engineer, National Railways of Mexico. 

George A. Harwcod, Massachusetts V B, Tufts College; 
Chief Engineer, Electric Zone Improvements of the N. Y. C. & 
H. R. R. R. 

William A. Turk, Virginia E, Roanoke College; President, 
American Passenger Agents' Association; deceased. 

Arthur P. Davis, District of Columbia Y, Columbian Uni- 
versity; Chief Engineer, United States Reclamation Service; 
hydrographer in charge of Panama Canal investigation. 

Richard N. Brcoke, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
United States Consul, New Rochelle, France; artist and critic. 

Gecrge* B. Anderson, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity; United States Consul, Antigua, W. I.; ex-Consul to Brazil. 

Isaac E. Avery, North Carolina E, Trinity College; editor, 
Charlotte (N. C.) Observer; ex-Unite-l States Consul, Shanghai, 

Edward W. Barrett, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity; proprietor and editor, Age-Herald, Birmingham, Ala. 

William M. Singerley, Pennsylvania T, University of Penn- 
sylvania; proprietor and editor, Philadelphia Record; minority 
candidate for Governor of Pennsylvania; deceased. 

Joseph Gill Brown, North Carolina S, Trinity College; 
capitalist, Raleigh, N. C. 

Alpheus F. Williams, New York B 0, Cornell University; 
General Manager, De Beers Diamond Mines, Kimberley, South 
Africa; U. S. Consular Agent. 

George G. Crawford, Georgia B I, Georgia School of Tech- 
nology; President, Tennessee Coal and Iron Co. 


John E. Woods, Pennsylvania A 11, Washington and Jeffer- 
son College; Assistant General Manager, Carnegie Steel Co. 

Homer Folks, Michigan B 0, Albion College; charities 
organizer; editor, Charities; author. 

Abel J. Grout, Vermont B Z, University of Vermont; eminent 
botanist; editor. The Bryologist. 

Robert Lee Bullard, Alabama A E, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute; Colonel, U. S. A.; Special aide and investigator of the 
United States Provisional Government of Cuba; author. 

George W. McElroy, South Carolina A $, South Carolina 
College; Lieutenant Commander, U. S. N.; in charge of U. S. 
Navy Yard, Puget Sound. 

Thomas D. Griffin, Virginia E, Roanoke College; Captain, 
U. S. N.; Commander on board U. S. S. Brooklyn during the 
battle of Santiago, Spanish- American War. 

Walter D. McCaw, New York A A, Columbia University; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Medical Corps. 

Robert A. Waller, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity; Vice-President, World's Columbian Exposition, 1893; 
City Comptroller, Chicago, 111. 

John McL. Coit, South Carolina A $, South Carolina College; 
Chief Examiner, United States Patent Office. 

Hugh Lee Miller, North Carolina A A, University of North 
Carolina; Consulting Chemist; Professor, North Carolina A. & M. 
College; deceased. 

Robert S. Munger, Alabama B A, University of Alabama; 
inventor, Munger Cotton Gin; President, Continental Gin Co. 

Willis D. Weatherford, Tennessee B H, Vanderbilt University; 
International Secretary, Y. M. C. A. 

Jason E. Hammond, Michigan B K, Hillsdale College; State 
Superintendent, Public Instruction of Michigan. 

Thomas J. Happel, Virginia A, University of Virginia; 
President, American Medical Society. 

John H. Frye, Alabama B A, University of Alabama; Presi- 
dent, Traders National Bank, Birmingham, Ala.; director of 
various other concerns. 

A. C. Clewis, Florida A Q, University of Florida; President, 
Exchange National Bank, Tampa, Fla. 


Albert E. Metzger, New York B 0, Cornell University; 
President, German American Trust Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Frank Drew, North Carolina A H, Bingham's School; rail- 
road president, Tampa, Fla. 

W. D. Nesbitt, Georgia A B, University of Georgia; Chair- 
man, Alabama Railroad Commission; President, Warrant Ware- 
house Co. 

Gervais Lombard, Louisiana B E, Tulane University; Chief 
Engineer, New Orleans Levee Board. 

M. S. Darrow, Minnesota V N, University of Minnesota; 
Chief Engineer, Price River Irrigation Project, Utah. 

John M. Evans, Vermont B Z, University of Vermont; Chief 
Inspector, erection oj the new East River Bridge, New York. 

Robert E. Nelson, Virginia A, Virginia Military Institute; 
Civil Engineer, Washington, D. C. 

Charles B. Percy, Virginia B, Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity; Consulting Engineer, Mobile, Ala. 

James R. Kemper, Virginia P, Bethel Academy; President, 
Long Distance Telephone Company of Virginia. 



The following is a complete list of every charter granted and 
chapter established, as far as known. 

The chapters are arranged and numbered according to the 
date of installation. Some difficulty was experienced in arriving 
at the true date, because, in many instances, different printed 
records assign divergent dates. This confusion arises, probably, 
from the fact that the charters are, very naturally, dated upon 
days not those of the first initiation. The date of the first initia- 
tion, is, however, the true date of a chapter's beginning and 
whenever that was ascertainable it is stated in preference to any 

The list states (a) the number of the chapter in order of 
establishment, (b) its name, (c) the institution with which it is 
or was connected, (d) the city and State wherein the institution 
is located, (e) the date of its establishment, (/) its founders, when 
known, or, perhaps, in some instances, the installing officers, (g) 
other interesting historical information, (h) the number of mem- 
bers upon its rolls at the date of its extinction or, if still in exist- 
ence, on or about September 1,1911. In a number of instances it 
was impossible to secure the total number of members. In such 
instances the compiler estimated the number and marked the 
sam^e thus *. 

The chapters in italics are extinct ; the balance are in active 
standing, September i, 1911. 

The method of naming chapters is now as follows: To the 
names of the State in which the chapter is located is added, for 
the first chapter, the first letter of the Greek alphabet; e. g., 
"Virginia Alpha." The second chapter takes the second letter 
and so on through the alphabet. After the alphabet is exhausted 
it is repeated, using two letters; e. g., "Virginia Alpha- Alpha," 


"Alabama Alpha-Beta," etc. In the early days the first chapter 
in each State was called "Alpha " ; the second " Beta," etc. Thus 
there was a Virginia Alpha, a Kentucky Alpha, a Tennessee 
Alpha, etc. Later, this method was superseded by the method 
now used and the new chapters renamed in accordance with the 
new rule. The present rule has always been adhered to, except 
that recently the chapter at the University of Kentucky was 
allowed to assume the title "Mu Iota," that having been the name 
of the local fraternity absorbed by Alpha Tau Omega. 

1. Virginia Alpha, Virginia Military Institute, L-exington, 
Va. September ii, 1865. Otis A. Glazebrook, Erskine M. Ross 
and Alfred Marshall. Until July 5, 1870, the executive chapter 
of the fraternity. Charter withdrawn, 1881, on account of anti- 
fraternity regulation. Members, 102. 

2. Virginia Beta, Washington and Lee University, Lexing- 
ton, Va. November 18, 1865, by Virginia Alpha. Chapter 
surrendered, October 20, 1899, because of lack of material. Re- 
vived, June, 1906, by the absorption of Chi Rho, a local. S. G. 
Hamner, B, installing officer. Members, 150*. 

3. West Virginia Zeta, a community chapter at Weston, W. 
Va. April i, 1866. W. G. Bennett, A. Original name was 
West Virginia Alpha. Chapter at Central University was also 
called Zeta. Charter withdrawn, 1867. Members, 8. 

4. Virginia Eta, a community chapter at Harrisonburg, 
Va. July 7, 1866. F. A. Berlin, B. Charter withdrawn, 1869. 
The correct name of this chapter is Virginia Eta, not Virginia 
Gamma as stated in the catalogues of 1897 and 1903. The Con- 
gress of 1877 changed this name. Members, 9. 

5. Tennessee Theta, a community chapter at Knoxville, 
Tenn. July 12, 1866. C. Deaderick, B, and J. M. Kennedy, B. 
Original name was Tennessee Alpha. Charter withdrawn, 1867. 
In 1879 the name Tennessee Alpha was changed to Tennessee 
Theta, and the chapter at Sewanee was also called Tennessee 
Theta for some time. Members, 9. 

6. Tennessee Kappa, a community chapter at Memphis, 
Tenn. February 5, 1867. J. W. Harris, B. Original name, 
Tennessee Delta. Charter withdrawn, 1872. Members, 8. 

7. Tennessee Gamma, a community chapter at Columbia, 


Tenn. March 4, 1867. W. J. Webster. B, and J. W. Gordon, B. 
Charter withdrawn, 1868. Members, 11. 

8. Tennessee Iota, established, 1867, as a community chapter, 
at Murfreesbcro, Tenn., and, 1867, transferred to Union Univer- 
sity. Thomas T. Eaten, B, J. A. Leiper, B, and J. H. Jamison, B. 
Original name, Tennessee Beta. Charter withdrawn, 1873, the 
university having closed and later merged with Southwestern 
Baptist University at Jackson, Tenn., where later, Tennessee 
Alpha Tau was established. The Southwestern Baptist Univer- 
sity has since (1909) changed its name to Union University. 
Members, 39. 

9. Tennessee Lambda, Cumberland University, Lebanon, 
Tenn. January 17, 1868. T. T. Eaton, B, F. R. Burrus, I, 
W. A. Wilkerson, I, S. T. Jamison, I, and E. L. Turner, I. Origi- 
nal name, Tennessee Epsilon. Charter surrendered, 1871, for 
lack of suitable material. Revived, January 12, 1899, by W. W. 
Fau, M, and Zachary Tolliver, A. Charter withdrawn, 1902, on 
account of inactivity. Members, 178. 

10. Virginia Delta, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 
Va. November 25, 1868. W. G. Bennett, A, and F. A. Berlin, 
B. Has maintained a continuous existence to date. Members, 

1 1 . Virginia Epsilon, Roanoke College, Salem, Va. Novem- 
ber 10, 1869. James W. Marshall, F. Charter withdrawn, 1876, 
for want of suitable material. Revived, September 30, 1881, 
by O. E. Terril, E, and Sylvanus Stokes, A. Charter withdrawn, 
1892, because of inactivity. Members, 102. 

12. Kentucky Mu, Kentucky Military Institute, Farmdale, 
Ky. March 10, 1870. T. G. Hayes, A. Original name, Kentucky 
Alpha. Charter withdrawn, 1872, lack of material. Revived, 
April 13, 1 88 1, by Sylvanus Stokes, A. Charter surrendered, May 
23, 1887, the institution having closed. Members, loi. 

13. Tennessee Nu, University of Nashville, Nashville, Tenn. 
November 2, 1871. C. B. Percey, B, C. E. Waldron, A, and J. H. 
Glennon, A. Charter withdrawn, 1872, the university having 
closed. Members, 5. 

14. North Carolina Xi, Trinity College, Durham, N. C. 
March 2, 1872. J. R. Anderson, A, and W. L. Wicks, A. Charter 


withdrawn, 1879, because of anti-fraternity laws. Revived, May 
16, 1890, by R. W. Bingham, B E. Members, 150*. 

15. Kentucky Omicron, Bethel College, Russellville, Ky. 
May 16, 1872. D. O. Thomas, I, and F. P. Bond, A. Charter 
withdrawn, October, 1872, because of anti-fraternity laws. 
Members, 3. 

16. Tennessee Pi, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 
October 18, 1872. A. I. Branhan, O. Charter withdrawn, 1873, 
lack of material. Revived, December 26, 1900, by W. W. Carson, 
B. Members, 60*. 

17. Virginia Rho, Bethel Academy, Warrenton, Va. De- 
cember 12, 1873. Richard R. Kirk, E. Original name, Virginia 
Zeta. Charter withdrawn, 1875, because charter was illegally and 
unconstitutionally granted. Members, 19. 

18. Georgia Sigma, a community chapter at Rome, Ga. 
January 3, 1874. A. I. Branham, 0. Original name, Georgia 
Alpha. Charter withdrawn, 1875. Members, 7. 

19. District of Columbia Upsilon, Columbian University, 
Washington, D. C. November 6, 1874. C- ^- Cleaves, E, and 
F. F. Marbury, E. Original name. District of Columbia Alpha. 
Charter withdrawn, 1875, killed by anti-fraternity laws. Revived, 
April 17, 1887, by J. C. Pugh, B A. Charter withdrawn, 1888. 
Members, 8. 

20. Virginia Phi, a community chapter at Alexandria, Va. 
December, 1874. L. Marbury, T. Original name, Virginia 
Theta. Charter withdrawn, 1876. Members, 14. 

21. Illinois Chi, a community chapter, Chicago, 111. July 
21, 1875. R. A. Walker, B. Original name, Illinois Alpha. 
Charter withdrawn, 1876. Members, 5. 

22. Maryland Psi, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Md. April 9, 1877. Walter H. Page, X, O. A. Glazebrook, A, 
M. D. Humes, A, J. B. Green, A, R. h. Burwell, A, M. S. Hudgins, 
B, T. G. Hayes, A, and F. S. Hambleton, A. Original name, 
Maryland Alpha. No members were ever initiated by this chap- 
ter. Chapter withdrawn, 1877. This chapter does not appear in 
the roll cf chapters in either the 1897 or 1903 catalogues — -probably 
because no persons were initiated. It appears on Anderson's 
roll of 1878. 


23. Tennessee Omega, University of the South, Sewanee, 
Tenn. August 21, 1877. J. I. lyowell. A, and W. I. Lowell, A. 
Original name, Tennessee Theta. Members, 2io''\ 

24. Virginia Alpha Alpha, Richmond College, Richmond, 
Va. September 15, 1878. J. R. Anderson, A, G. W. Archer, A, 
and J. F. T. Anderson, A. Original name, Virginia Eta. Charter 
withdrawn, 1884. Members, 8. 

25. George Alpha Beta, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
November, 1878. P. F. Smith, A. Original name, Georgia Beta. 
Members, 190.* 

26. Louisiana Alpha Gatn?na, University of Louisiana, New 
Orleans, La. No charter was ever granted for this chapter and 
no initiations were made. But the name was reserved for a chapter 
to be formed there. It seems a permit to establish a chapter was 
granted to John I. Lowell, A, the founder of Tennessee Omega, 
who studied law at the University of Louisiana, but the proposed 
chapter never came into being. The name Alpha Gamma was 
borne, for a time, by the chapter at Central University. The 
chapter is not listed on the rolls of 1897 or 1903. 

27. North Carolina Alpha Delta, University of North Caro- 
lina, Chapel Hill, N. C. May 23, 1879. J. C. Winston, A A, and 
T. D. Stokes, A A. Members, 140*. 

28. Alabama Alpha Kpsilon, Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, Auburn, Ala. December 18, 1879. I- ^- Candler, A B. 
Members, 288. 

^^29. Georgia Alpha Zeta, Mercer University, Macon, Ga. 
November 27, 1880. O. A. Glazebrook, A. Members, 225*. 

30. North Carolina Alpha Eta, Bingham's School, Mebane, 
N. C. April 7, 1881. Sylvanus Stokes, A. Charter withdrawn, 
1896, because of anti-fraternity laws. Existed sub rosa during 
its entire existence. Members, 94. 

31. Pennsylvania Tau, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. April 8,1881. Sylvanus Stokes, A. First Northern 
chapter. Charter withdrawn, 1884, lack of interest. Revived, 
1891, by A. J. Yost, A L Dormant, 1896-1901. Revived, 1901, 
by F. N. D. Buchman, A L Members, 175. 

32. Georgia Alpha Theta, Emory College, Oxford, Ga. 
April 26, 1881. I. L. Candler, A B, G. A. Gaffney, A B, and W. 
M. Ragsdale, A B. Members, 275*. 


33. Pennsylvania Alpha Iota, Muhlenberg College, Allen- 
town, Pa. October 14, 1881. N. Wiley Thomas, T. Members^ 


34. Michigan Alpha Mu, Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. 
October 14, 188 1. O. A. Glazebrook, A. Members, 156. 

35. New Jersey Alpha Kappa, Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, Hoboken, N. J. October 15, 1881. O. A. Glazebrook, A. 
Charter withdrawn, 1884, for lack of interest. Revived, October 
12, 1890. Charter withdrawn, 1894, for lack of material. Mem- 
bers, 22. 

36. New York Alpha Lambda, Columbia University, New 
York. November 25, 1881. O. A. Glazebrook, A. Charter 
withdrawn, 1884, because of inactivity. Revived, 1891, by E. J. 
Murphy, A 0. Charter withdrawn, 1892, the members being 
mostly law students, followed the seceding professoriate of that 
school to another new law school. Revived, October 30, 1900, 
by U. B. Phillips, A B. Charter withdrawn, January, 1910, for 
lack of proper interest. Members, loo*. 

37. Ohio Alpha Nu, Mount Union College, Alliance, O. 
February 14, 1882. W. H. Lamar, A E. Members, 260*. 

38. Pennsylvania Alpha Pi, Washington and Jefferson 
College, Washington, Pa. March 10, 1882. N. Wiley Thomas, T. 
Absorption of chapter of Alpha Gamma. See No. 43. Charter 
withdrawn, 1883, the entire membership having graduated in 
1882. Revived, February 22, 1901, by E. J. Shives, A W. Mem- 
bers, 87. 

39. New York Alpha Omicron, St. Lawrence University, Can- 
ton, N. Y. March 18, 1882. O. A. Glazebrook, A. Members, 183. 

40. Pennsylvania Alpha Rho, Lehigh University, South 
Bethlehem, Pa. March 20, 1882. N. Wiley Thomas, T. Charter 
withdrawn, 1886, inactivity. Revived, 1890, by L. W. Glaze- 
brook, A Z, H. S. Jandom, B I, and E. B. Clark, A $. Charter 
withdrawn, 1897, inactivity. Revived, June 9, 1903, by O. A. 
Glazebrook, A, and Leo Wise, A I, by absorption of Lehigh 
chapter of Psi Alpha Kappa. Members, 123. 

41. Arkansas Alpha Xi, Arkansas Industrial University, 
Fayetteville, Ark. March 28, 1882. W. H. Lamar, A E. Char- 
ter withdrawn, July i, 1882, inactivity. Members, 5. 


42. Oregon Alpha Sigma, Oregon Industrial College, Cor- 
vallis, Ore. April i, 1882. W. H. Lamar, A E. Charter with- 
drawn, 1882, inactivity. Members, 5. 

43. Tennessee Alpha Tau, Southwestern Presbyterian Uni- 
versity, Clarkesville, Tenn. April 12, 1882, absorption of Theta 
chapter of Alpha Gamma fraternity, disbanded. Pennsylvania 
Alpha Pi and Tennessee Alpha Tau were formed by the absorption 
of the two remaining chapters of Alpha Gamma. These two 
chapters had been invited by six other general fraternities to 
accept charters from them — they chose A T Q. Alpha Gamma 
was founded at Cumberland University in 1867 and established 
twenty-one chapters, all of which passed out of existence except 
two, which were absorbed by A T Q. Members, 150^'. 

44. Pennsylvania Alpha Upsilon, Pennsylvania College, 
Gettysburg, Pa. June 27, 1882. N. Wiley Thomas, T. Mem- 
bers, 151. 

45. South Carolina Alpha Chi, Citadel Academy, S. C. 
January i, 1883. J. F. Robertson, B, and M. P. Ravenel, Q. 
Charter withdrawn, December, 1886, the entire chapter having 
graduated. Revived, June, 1888, by M. P. Ravenel, Q. Charter 
surrendered, January 18, 1891, anti-fraternity laws. Members, 24. 

46. Ohio Alpha Psi, Wittenberg College, Springfield, O. 
November 8, 1883. N. Wiley Thomas, T. Members, 184. 

47. South Carolina Alpha Phi, South Carolina College, 
Columbia, S. C. November 25, 1883. T. F. McDaw, A H, and 
Sandeford Bee, A X. Charter surrendered, 1897, anti-fraternity 
laws. Members, 54. 

48. Florida Alpha Omega, University of Florida, Gaines- 
ville, Fla. February 26, 1884. W. H. Milton, A E, and Howard 
Lamar, A E. Charter withdrawn, 1890, because of decreased 
attendance at school caused by a disagreement of faculty. Re- 
vived, June 15, 1904, by S. B. Thompson, A Q, and Hugh Martin, 
B 0. Members, 91. 

49. Kentucky Zeta, Central University, Richmond, Ky. 
May 24, 1884. O. A. Glazebrook, A. Originally called Alpha 
Gamma. Community chapter at Weston, W. Va. , was also called 
Zeta. Charter withdrawn, 1890, inactivity. Members, 27. 

50. Iowa Beta Alpha, Simpson College, Indianola, la. 


March i6, 1885. W. H. Ivamar, A E._ Absorbed Rho Alpha, a 
local. Charter withdrawn, 1890, because of anti-fraternity 
sentiment. Revived, May 20, 1905, by Claude S. Wilson, V 0. 
Alpha Iota Phi, a local, absorbed. Members, 93. 

51. Alabama Beta Beta, Southern University, Greensboro, 
Ala. March 28, 1885. 1". R. McCarty, A E. Members, 210*. 

52. Massachusetts Beta Gamma, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Boston, Mass. April 3, 1885. W. L. Harris, T, 
and C. W. Baker, A Y. Charter withdrawn, 1886, inactivity. 
Revived, March 12, 1906, by absorption of Alpha Omega, a local. 
Me'mbers, 59. 

53. Alabama Beta Delta, University of Alabama, Tusca- 
loosa, Ala. October 29, 1885. C. A. Allen, AB. Members, 185. 

54. I^ouisiana Beta Bpsiloii, Tulane University, New 
Orleans, La. March4, 1887. O. N. O. Watts, Z. Members, 185*. 

55. Vermont Beta Zeta, University of Vermont, Burlington, 
Vt. April 19, or March 29, 1887. C. S. Ferris, A 0. Members, 


56. Ohio Beta Eta, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, 

O. October 6, 1887. H. C. Phillips, A W, who pursued studies 
at Wesleyan. Members, 150*. 

57. New York Beta Theta, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. 
Y. November 11, 1887. I^. W. Glazebrook, A Z. Members, 235. 

58. Michigan Beta Kappa, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, 
Mich. January 17, 1888. H. H. Stark, AM. Members, 141. 

59. Georgia Beta Iota, Georgia School of Technology, 
Atlanta, Ga. September 18, 1888. F. G. Corker, A 0. Mem- 
bers, 175*. 

60. Michigan Beta Lambda, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich. December 8, 1888. E. J. Shives, A ^, and Alpha 
Mu and Beta Kappa chapters. Charter withdrawn, 1894, inac- 
tivity. Revived, June 11, 1904, by E. P. Lyon, B K. Members, 

61. Georgia Beta Nu, Middle Georgia College, Milledgeville, 
Ga. December 7 or 9, 1888. C. C. Noll, A 0. Charter with- 
drawn, 1890, succumbed to faculty opposition. Members, 25. 

62. Ohio Beta Mu, University of Wooster, Wooster, O. 
December 20, 1888. E. J. Shives, A W*. Members, 150*. 


63. South Carolina Beta Xij College of Charleston, Charles- 
ton, S. C. February 16, 1889. South Carolina Alpha Xi chapter. 
Charter withdrawn, 1892. Revived, October, 1898, by H. Ran- 
dolph, A. Members, 89. 

64. Michigan Beta Omicron, Albion College, Albion, Mich. 
May 24, 1889. J. T. Rugh, A M. Absorbed E. S. S. Society. 
Members, 139. 

65. Tennessee Beta Pi, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn. October 19, 1889. O. A. Glazebrook, A, A. G. Haywood, 
A 0, B. A. Wise, A Z, and A. C. Ford, A H. Members, 1 10*. 

66. Ohio Beta Rho, Marietta College, Marietta, O. June 24, 
1890. E. J. Shives, A W. Charter surrendered, January 13, 
1898, lack of material. Members, 37. 

67. Virginia Beta Sigma, Hampden Sidney College, Hamp- 
den Sidney, Va. October 30, 1890. E. P. Dismukes, B. Charter 
withdrawn, 1894, inactivity. Members, 11. 

68. Maine Beta Upsilon, University of Maine, Orono, Me. 
April 10, 1 891. F. W. Norris, B Z. S. I. U., a local, absorbed. 
Members, 215. 

69. South Carolina Beta Phi, Wofford College, Spartanburg, 
S. C. May 2, 1891. W. W. Johnson, A W, and T. D. Bratton, 
Q. Charter withdrawn, 1896, anti-fraternity legislation. Mem- 
bers, 22. 

70. Pennsylvania Beta Chi, Haverford College, Haverford, 
Pa. May 8, 1891. M. T. Brown, A Y, H. R. Stadleman, A Y, 
C. R. McCane, T, and H. M. Spangler, A Y. Charter withdrawn, 
1892, on account of anti-fraternity laws. Members, 4. 

71. California Beta Psi, Leland Stanford, Jr., University, 
Palo Alto, Cal. December 21, 1 891. A. G. Laird, B 0. Charter 
withdrawn, 1898, because of inactivity. Revived, August, 1911, 
by O. M. Washburn, B K. Members, 35. 

72. Ohio Beta Omega, Ohio State University, Columbus, O. 
May 6, 1892. C. A. Betts, A N, and W. M. Ellett, A N. Mem- 
bers, 168. 

73. Maine Gamma Alpha, Colby University, Waterville, 
Me. June 25, 1892. George Maguire, B Y. Members, 138. 

74. Massachusetts Gamma Beta, Tufts College, Medford, 
Mass. January 29, 1893. George Maguire, B Y. Members, 179. 


75. Indiana Gamma Gamma, Rose Polytechnic Institute, 
Terre Haute, Ind. November 15, 1894. F. E. Smith, B B. 
Members, 90. 

76. Tennessee Beta Tau, Southwestern Baptist University, 
Jackson, Tenn. February 28, 1894. C. P. Lowe, A. Members, 


77. Rhode Island Gamma Delta, Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I. September 21, 1894. E. A. Maynard, B Z, and 
C. E. Mott, B Z. Members, 144. 

78. Texas Gamma Epsilon, Austin College, Sherman, Tex. 
March 12, 1895. S. E. Chandler, A T, and B. Holmes, A T. 
Charter surrendered, November 17, 1900, reduced attendance at 
college. Members, 41. 

79. Illinois Gamma Zeta, University of Illinois, Champaign, 
111. May 21, 1895. W. G. Atwood, B 0, E. P. Lyon, B K, and 
E. A. Thornton, A 0. Members, 178. 

80. Nebraska Gamma Theta, University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Neb. May 29, 1897. E. J. Shives, A W. Members, 152. 

81. Texas Gamma Eta, University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 
October 26, 1897. J. C. Saner, B H, J. W. Gregory, A T, J. O. 
Caldwell, A, and W. Bremond, Q. Members, 60*. 

82. California Gamma Iota, University of California, 
Berkeley, Cal. April 10, 1900. W. R. Eckart, B0, N. J. Mansow, 
A, and F. A. Berlin, B. Members, 85. 

83. Ohio Gamma Kappa, Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, O. March 9, 1901. E. J. Shives, A W. Absorbed 
Psi Omega, a local. Members, 75*. 

84. Colorado Gamma Lambda, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Col. May 4, 1901. C. S. Van Brundt, V Z. Absorbed 
Schannakeyan Club. Members, no. 

85. Kansas Gamma Mu, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 
Kan. November 21, 1901. Claude S. Wilson, V 6. Members, 

86. Minnesota Gamma Nu, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. March 8, 1902. E. P. Lyon, B K, and L. M. 
Huntington, V V. Members, no. 

87. Illinois Gamma Xi, University of Chicago, Chicago, 
111. June 16, 1904. Claude S. Wilson, V 0. Members, 67. 


88. Indiana Gamma Omicron, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Ind. November 25, 1904. W. K. Hatt, B 0. Absorbed 
Debonair Club. Members, 88. 

89. Washington Gamma Pi, University of Washington, 
Seattle, Wash. January 20, 1906. C. S. Van Brundt, P Z. Phi 
Sigma Epsilon, a local, absorbed. Members, 66. 

90. Missouri Gamma Rho, University of Missouri, Columbia, 
Mo. April 21, 1906. G. C. Davis, B Q, and Ira Walborn, A I. 
Absorbed Alpha Delta, a local. Members, 75. 

91. Massachusetts Gamma Sigma, Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, Worcester, Mass. November 27, 1906. George Ma- 
guire, B T. Arms and Hammer, a local, absorbed. Members, 68. 

92. Wisconsin Gamma Tau, University of Wisconsin, Mad- 
ison, Wis. February 23, 1907. E. P. Lyon, B K, Wesley E. 
King, r Z, and John N. Van der Vries, T M, Members, 81. 

93. Iowa Gamma Upsilon, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 
March 7, 1908. John N. Van der Vries, F M. Black Hawks, a 
local, absorbed. Members, 35. 

94. Kentucky Mu Iota, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 
Ky. February 22, 1909. Paul R. Hickok, B M. Mu Iota, a 
local, absorbed. Name " Mu Iota" granted on petition to Worthy 
Grand Chief Hickok. Members, 54. 

95. Oregon Gamma Phi, University of Oregon, Eugene, 
Ore. February 22, 1910. Harry M. Crooks, B M, installing 
officer. Members, 29. 

96. Washington Gamma Chi, Washington State College, 
Pullman, Wash. May 20, 1911. O. M. Washburn, B K, install- 
ing officer. Absorbed Washington Sigma fraternity. Members, 35. 

Recapitulation . 

During the life of the fraternity ninety-six charters were 
granted and ninety-four chapters established. ]\Iaryland Psi at 
Johns Hopkins and Louisiana Alpha Gamma at the University 
of Louisiana, for which charters were granted, were never estab- 
lished by the initiation of members and should probably not be 
carried on the rolls. Of the ninety-four chapters actually estab- 
lished, sixty-two are active and thirty-two are inactive on Septem- 
ber I, 1 911. Of the thirty-two inactive chapters, eight are com- 


munity chapters, abolished (1876) by act of Congress; one charter 
was withdrawn because it had not been granted according to law ; 
eight chapters were killed by anti-fraternity legislation; twelve 
charters were withdrawn for one of two reasons; that is, either 
the chapter made no effort to prolong its own life, or, could not, 
for lack of suitable material, recruit its depleted ranks. 

The fraternity has entered thirty- three States of the Union. 
The States were entered in the following order: i, Virginia; 
2, Tennessee; 3, Kentucky; 4, North Carolina; 5, District of 
Columbia; 6, Georgia; 7, Alabama; 8, Pennsylvania; 9, New 
Jersey; 10, Michigan; 11, New York; 12, Ohio; 13, Arkansas; 
14, Oregon; 15, South Carolina; 16, Florida; 17, Iowa; 18, Massa- 
chusetts; 19, Louisiana; 20, Vermont; 21, Maine; 22, California; 
23, Indiana; 24, Texas; 25, Rhode Island; 26, Illinois; 27, Nebras- 
ka; 28, Colorado; 29, Kansas; 30, Minnesota; 31, Washington; 
32, Missouri; 33, Wisconsin. The fraternity now has chapters in 
each of these States. Alpha Tau Omega was the first national 
fraternity to establish chapters- in Arkansas, Oregon and Florida. 


TabIvK a — Baird's Statistics. 

(Statistics compiled from the several editions of William R. Baird's "Handbook of 
American College Fraternities." The dates indicate the edition from which the figures 
are taken.) 



Active Chapters 

Inactive Chapters 

Total Chapters 

Chapter Houses Owned . 
Chapter Houses Rented. 
Chapter Houses Total. . . 





















Table B^ — Catalogue Statistics. 

(Statistics compiled from the various catalogues, registers and directories published 
by the fraternity. The dates indicate the years in which the catalogues, etc., were 


Total Membership 
Chapters Active. . . 
Chapters Inactive . 
Total Chapters. . . 






















Table D — The Fraternity's Population. 

The design of the compiler was to exhibit the total member- 
ship of each chapter of the fraternity at the close of each decade 
since its foundation. 

After infinite labor he had gathered all the needed material 
except the present m^embership of about fifteen chapters. Un- 
ceasing correspondence and repeated requests failed to produce 
this needed information. 

Without the latest statistics the whole table would be incom- 


plete and worthless. The compiler must therefore send out his 
work without having attained the completeness he desired. 
Some other compiler miay fare better. 

The tables showed that at the end of 1869, the chapters had 
initiated 187 members; at the end of 1879, 623 members; at the 
end of 1889, 2,288 members; at the end of 1899, 4,881 members. 
At this date there are not less than 10,000 members. 

OCT 2 19^' 

One copy del. to Cat. Div. 


1 J / ; 


020 165 362 9